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Thomas Fornet-Ponse

For a Poor Church!

The Catacomb Pact of 1965
as an Example of Detachment from the World


From: Stimmen der Zeit, 10/2012, P. 651-661.
webmaster's own, not authorized translation


    Shortly before the conclusion of the Second Vatican Council, on 16 November 1965 about 40 bishops met in the Catacombs of Domitilla in Rome. They committed themselves to standing up in their dioceses for a poor, serving church. THOMAS FORNET-PONSE, consultant at the Akademie der Diözese Hildesheim in Goslar, describes content and relevance to the present situation of the "Catacomb Pact".


In his speech at the "meeting with committed Catholics from the church and society" on 25 September 2011 in the Concert Hall in Freiburg Pope Benedict XVI argued for the Church's "true detachment from the world." Since then one has been discussing what exactly "detachment from the world" means {1}. For while the call for detachment from the world is often regarded as legitimate, quite differing conclusions are drawn from it. On the one hand, one demands that the German church tax system and / or the state subsidies are abandoned and, connected with this, the numerous institutions of the Catholic Church in Germany and elsewhere are called into question. On the other hand, the President of the German Bishops' Conference, Archbishop Robert Zollitsch, supports the concern of detachment from the world. But he does not regard this as call for a "substantially new Constitution" and, accordingly, also not as call for the abolishment of the church tax, especially since this is not a privilege but "the institutional embodiment of religious freedom" {2}.

From the Protestant side, too, the headword was approvingly received and connected again with other conclusions:

"A Church that adapts herself to the world like a chameleon loses her freedom and independence and can not be salt of the earth and light of the world." {3}

There would be necessary a further thinking about the detachment from the world: It also included the hierarchical and sacramental constitution of the Church, which from the Protestant point of view is not a constitutive property of the Church. However, it is not intended to make here a further contribution to the debate over the German church tax system and other structural issues. It is also impossible to consider the very different facets of detachment from the world: from the with it associated image of the Church over the specific organization of the Church's missionary task in the world (especially on the basis of "Gaudium et Spes") up to the relationship between church and state or the adequacy of this term.

Rather, one aspect shall be singled out, by showing what consequences the Church's detachment from the world has for her relationship to wealth. As an important and pioneering example of such a detachment from the world, the Catacomb Pact is presented. It was made by 40 bishops on 16 November 1965.



The Church's Detachment from the World and its Consequences

Although Benedict XVI puts forward no specific proposals with the help of which his call for the Church's detachment from the world could be implemented, some perspectives can be found in his speech and earlier writings. This can already be seen in his diagnosis that in addition to the constant service of the mission that she has received from the Lord a contrary tendency is also manifested, namely, "that the Church becomes self-satisfied, settles down in this world, becomes self-sufficient and adapts herself to the standards of the world" {4}. In this case "she gives greater weight to organization and institutionalization than to her vocation to openness towards God."

Detachment from the world in this sense, is therefore, first of all, the openness of the Church to God and the freedom of the Church from worldly standards and patterns of behaviour. "World" is here - as in the early considerations of Joseph Ratzinger before and during the Second Vatican Council {5} - understood in the sense of corresponding statements of the New Testament. Besides the central passage Jn 17.16, this is particularly Paul's admonition in the Letter to the Romans, "Do not model your behaviour on the contemporary world, but let the renewing of your minds transform you, so that you may discern for yourselves what is the will of God" (Rom 12.2). "The pursued discernment in the Holy Spirit primarily applies to the distinction between false and proper care in the world (cf. Lk 12, 22-32; Mt 6, 25-33)." {6} What matters first and for the most part for the believers is to seek and find the kingdom of God in all things, and to be mindful of the eschatological reservation and eschatological orientation of the Christian faith. Then they may actually be "salt of the earth" and "light of the world". They should not retreat from the world but live and work in it - out of the openness to God. "However, what it means to be Church in the world has hardly been expounded by the pope in the Freiburg Speech." {7}

The Pope does not confine himself to speaking of the Church's openness to God. With reference to the secularizations, he explicitly takes also the wealth of the church into account (meaning, inter alia, the secularization of 1803). According to Benedict XVI, the material ties of the Church are a key element of worldliness - and, correspondingly, the worldly poverty a sign of detachment from the world. His comparison with the tribe of Levi, which remained without its own hereditary land, can be seen as indication of how radically this worldly poverty is to be understood. According to Benedict XVI, in numerous historical examples the detachment from the world, i.e. freeing oneself from material bonds, has made the missionary witness of the Church clearer:



"Once liberated from material and political burdens and privileges, the Church can reach out more effectively and in a truly Christian way to the whole world, she can be truly open to the world. She can live more freely her vocation to the ministry of divine worship and service of neighbour." {8}

This would be possible because in a Church which has detached herself from the world the Church's missionary task to bring people to God and thus to themselves cannot be confused with the striving of an institution to gain support for its own claims to power. Similarly but differently accentuated, Joseph Ratzinger wrote in an originally in 1958/59 published article that it was understandable today to ask whether the Church should not again become a conviction community - in view of a modern Church which is made up of pagans who admittedly still call themselves Christians but have actually become heathens:

"That would mean that one rigorously dispenses with the remaining secular positions, and removes pseudo-possessions which increasingly turn out to be dangerous, because they stand in the way of truth." {9}

Even if the church would thus lose valuable benefits, which she got by her current linkage with the public, it was necessary to withdraw from these outer positions, since this process would take place even without her consent. Here, the levels of the sacramental reality, of evangelization and of the personal relationship between believers and unbelievers should be distinguished. The early church as the little flock had admittedly become the universal Church and since the Middle Ages in the West she had been in accord with the world, but this congruence is only appearences, and this semblance is hindering the Church in her missionary activity:

"Sooner or later, with or against the will of the church, after the inner also an outer structural change will therefore take place: the church will become the pusillus grex [small herd]." {10}

In this article Ratzinger puts emphasis on the faith of Christians and regards from this perspective the Church's detachment from the world as a necessary process. It would ultimately result in a lower number of convinced Christians who would thus more effectively develop their missionary work. Whereas he connects this missionary work more directly with worldly poverty not only in the Freiburg Concert Hall speech. Already in another earlier article he drew the opposite conclusion that only a Church that has detached herself from the world, i.e. a poor Church is able to be really missionary:

"Only in this poverty of a Church that has detached herself from the world and opened to the world in order to break away from its entanglement, her missionary work will again become completely credible. She will unmistakably differ again from any lobbying of secular powers: She does not advertise herself but the one whose lot she has drawn" {11}



A church that abandons her material, political, and similar relationships - without being related in a sectarian manner only to herself - does not retreat from the world but can truly be sign and witness of the Church's solidarity with people: in imitation of Christ, who has also not sought worldly privileges but critically approached the wielders of power of his time and called on them to do penance. In this discipleship a poor church shares the fate of those who are directly addressed by Jesus' message of the Kingdom of God and who stood in the center of his preaching and his deeds: the poor and disadvantaged.

However, the worldly poverty is only a part - and probably for the Pope not the most important one, if one reads his statements in Freiburg in the light of his earlier thoughts - of the detachment from the world. What matters for him is especially the complete integrity of faith: it should cast off "what is only apparently faith but in truth convention and habit" {12}. The scandal of the Christian faith in God's loving attention to man, the suffering and death of Christ, and the resurrection of mortals should not be obscured and made inaccessible by other scandals of those who proclaim this faith. According to Benedict XVI, the detachment from the world may be useful also here. Also in the social and charitable sector it may help to "impart the particular vitality of Christian faith to people, both to the sufferers and their helpers" {13}. The charitable service was an expression of the Church's nature, but also these works must always anew detach themselves from the world, so that in view of the increasing secularization their roots remained alive. For a complete devotion to fellow human beings would only be possible out of a deep relationship with God, and this would wither away without loving attention to our neighbor.

Thus, according to Benedict XVI, detachment from the world means first generally the openness to God. It may then be differentiated into worldly poverty and, above all, into a life out of the honest belief in God: It does not bow to the conditions of this world but is nevertheless not closed to the concerns of the world. Rather, the church that detached herself from the world must here and today "according to the Gospel bear witness of the rule of God's love by word and deed" {14}, and this points beyond the contemporary world to the attachment to eternal life.

Beside its focus on faith, the Pope's call for the Church's detachment from the world can therefore be understood also as a call for a poor church, a church that is not involved in politics - without being a depoliticized church, and follows her vocation to serve God and our neighbor. Exactly these aspects are among the key commitments of the bishops who made the Catacomb Pact or joined it later.



The Catacomb Pact {*}

The so-called "Catacomb Pact" {15} denotes the self-commitment for a serving and poor church. It was initially signed by forty anonymous bishops (who were later joined by 500 more) on 16 November 1965 in the Catacombs of Domitilla in Rome. With it they promised to change fundamentally their lives and their church activity after their return from the Council.

Those bishops, to which among others Dom Helder Camara belonged, formed during the Council a group with the name "Church of the Poor". Its formation is primarily owed to three stimuli: First, John XXIII's speech on the radio of 11 September 1962. In it he said that towards the underdeveloped countries the church turned out to be the church of all people, above all the church of the poor. Secondly, the call from Nazareth (Paul Lauthier and his "Brotherhood of the Companions of the Carpenter Jesus of Nazareth", supported by Archbishop Maximos V Hakim from Nazareth and the Belgian Bishop Charles-Marie Himmer) to the bishops to consider the Church's relation to the poor. And thirdly the provocative study "For a Serving and Poor Church" by Yves Congar OP. In his Letters from the Council, Dom Helder Camara wrote about the motivation of this group:

"With a group of friends we have worked out a detailed plan, in order to lead with it - and with the grace of God - in the next three years of the Council the Holy Church back to the lost paths of poverty." {16}

Out of consideration for their confrères and beware of self-righteousness they did not want to perform a spectacular gesture but patiently work for reforms from within. Among the few noticeable results of their efforts to direct the attentive reflection of the Council to the poor is a passage in the Constitution on the Church "Lumen Gentium". There the poverty of the church is emphasized, resp. her vocation to follow the way of Christ in poverty and persecution. According to Christ's kenosis "the Church, although it needs human resources to carry out its mission, is not set up to seek earthly glory, but to proclaim, even by its own example, humility and self-sacrifice" (LG 8). Thus, the influence of this group on the Council was very limited. It seems that the vast majority of bishops was not interested in devoting themselves to the problem of poverty. This may explain why it says in the introduction of the self-commitment, on the one hand, that the bishops had realized what they needed for a life in evangelical poverty, and why they, on the other hand, emphasize that they did not want to act as loners and in a self-righteous manner; for they knew that they were in communio with their brother Bishops.



The self-commitments relate to the lifestyle and administration of the bishops. They begin with the statement that one wants to live, as regards accommodation, food, transport etc., like the ordinary population. What follows are two important declarations of renunciation:

"2) We definitively renounce the appearance and reality of riches, especially regarding to our manner of dress (rich material, loud colours) and symbols made of precious materials (they should in reality be evangelical signs). Cf. Mk 6,9; Mt 10,9s; Acts 3,6. Neither gold nor silver. 3) We will not possess real estate, goods, bank accounts etc. in our own names; if it should be necessary to have them, we will place everything in the name of the diocese, or of charitable and social works.. Cf. Mt 6,19-21; Lk 12,33s." {17}

Furthermore, the financial and asset management of the diocese shall be put in the hands of a knowledgeable lay panel so that the bishops are able to be pastors and apostles (4). They refuse to be addressed by titles which signify prestige and power (Eminence, Excellency, Monsignor...) but prefer to be called Father (5). In their behavior and their social relationships, they also want to avoid any appearance that they privileged the rich and powerful (6) and to foster or flatter anyone's vanity, in order to say thanks for gifts or to get them (7). As much as is necessary of our time, thought, heart, means, etc. shall be givento the apostolic and pastoral service to groups who are hard-pressed, economically weak, and underdeveloped - without compromising other people and groups in the diocese (8). Works of "beneficence" shall be transformed into social works (9). They will endeavor to ensure that those responsible for our government and our public services decide on and implement the laws, structures and social institutions that are necessary for justice, equality and the harmonious development of all people (10).

The collegiality of the bishops would then find its greatest evangelical fulfillment if they jointly served the majority of people. That's why they commit themselves, together with the bishoprics in poor nations, to the implementation of urgent projects. And at the level of international organizations they want to give witness to the gospel, and advocate the respective economic and cultural structures (11). Finally, they want to share the life of their brothers and sisters in Christ (inter alia: rather be promoters according to the spirit than rulers according to the world) (12). And they will present these resolutions to their dioceses, asking them for their support (13).

Although the group was not able to enforce the desired things in the Council, "by those mutually agreed self-commitments it had a profound spiritual and prophetic effect" {18}. First, the encyclical "Populorum Progressio" must be mentioned. Due to the urging of Helder Câmara, it was published in 1967 by Pope Paul VI. And this in turn led to a statement by several bishops, entitled "Plea for the Third World." There, inter alia, the prevailing economic system and the linkage between Church and money are criticized.



At the second General Assembly of the Latin American bishops in Medellin in 1968, it was at last possible to pass a document on "Poverty of the Church." There it says that a poor church denounces the unjust lack of this world's goods, preaches and lives in spiritual poverty, and is bound to material poverty. "With this the topics of the Catacomb Pact had become part of the magisterium of a continental local Church in the Catholic Church." {19} Also at the subsequent general meetings - in Puebla in 1979, Santo Domingo in 1992 and most recently in 2007 in Aparecida - this line has been confirmed and also christologically substantiated:

"Everything having to do with Christ has to do with the poor, and everything connected to the poor cries out to Jesus Christ." {20}


Is a Poor Church Possible?

The vision of a poor and serving church, which begins to emerge in the Catacomb Pact, particularly includes the intention to share the fate of those people who surround her, and not to face them as a rich, powerful and privileged church. Especially the reference to evangelical poverty in the introduction to the self-commitments makes clear what poverty is: not renunciation for the sake of renunciation or asceticism for asceticism's sake, but the correct attitude towards material things, namely the renunciation of own possessions or even wealth in favor of restricting oneself to the use of necessary goods. In addition, this own poverty involves pastoral work and the promotion of justice.

In accordance with this are - beside the commitment to avoiding any impression of a privileged treatment of the rich and powerful -, particularly the commitment to avoiding an, according to worldly standards, rich and powerful appearance by bearing insignia, titles or something similar but to share the lifestyle of the common people; or to place the responsibility, especially in the field of finance and administration of assets, on the shoulders of a specialized laity, in order to be able to focus better on the job as pastor and apostle. Such a vision of a poor Church that serves people leads to the question of whether and how she can be implemented - and what obstacles exist in this regard.

Karl Rahner SJ has dealt with this question already a few years after the Second Vatican Council and speaks of an "inability to implement poverty in the Church" {21}. To this end, he underlines first the double meaning of poverty in the New Testament: On the one hand it is a deficiency that should be fought, on the other hand it allows the true relationship with God. Rahner presupposes thus the dialectics of poverty and wealth: on the one hand, we are also rich because the poor, whose poverty should not be, are poor.



On the other hand, according to Jesus, wealth means the risk for human beings of being completely absorbed into the cares of this world and "not to have the radical freedom of the heart and all its powers that are necessary for the undivided reception of the kingdom" {22}. Between the two meanings of "poverty", there is at least the connection that voluntary poverty should help to eliminate the poverty of others (or at least alleviate). If the Church, in view of those facts, has to preach justice for the poor, the will is initially in the foreground to eliminate poverty that should not exist. However, as this requires to dispense with possessions, with it also the desire for one's own poverty is connected. It's true though that Rahner sees the preaching of the Church as fairly ineffective, because, as in the secular society, in the church both clergy and laity were incapable to accept poverty. It is likely that the Church will not succeed in fighting poverty by her own poverty:

"Today, there is still a time of inability to realize poverty in the church: It is only possible to be and to desire to be poor in the Church, if you recognize this 'poverty' as a prerequisite for eradicating poverty in the underdeveloped world. But in the Church as multitude of believers, this in principle existing impulse to implement one's own poverty is not seen to the extent as would be necessary, in order to eliminate t h i s poverty by means of the other one. One does not see, does not want to see, and is incapable to see." {23}

According to Rahner, the incapability of a life in poverty is based on the unwillingness of the majority to be serious about the demands of the Gospel. Although it is very difficult, in view of the by sin moulded economic and social constraints, to say how the individual can escape from them, s/he is nevertheless called upon to do it. That's why the question of the incapability to live in poverty must be put not only to the Church but to the individual: "Thus, the Church returns the question to the individual: whether s/he, too, is - and perhaps by a real guilt before God - too rich, and therefore incapable really to help the poor." {24}

Rahner thus on the one hand emphasizes the dialectical understanding of poverty, i.e. the interdependency between poverty and wealth, and on the other hand the danger that lies in wealth. One may so much be trapped in material goods that they become an end in themselves and are no longer understood as means to pursue the mission of Christ. A result of it is the incapability to accept voluntary poverty, otherwise it would be possible to fight poverty that should not exist, i.e. the shortages suffered by others. Although Rahner primarily focuses on the individual believers, his remarks apply also to the Church which is made up of them, and so one may also speak of the Church's incapability to live in poverty.

In other words: The material wealth (in) of the Church involves the danger of preventing a Church that is poor and detached from the world.



The bishops who signed the Catacomb Pact have not only proved their insight into this dialectic but above all their ability to live poverty and to detach themselves (properly understood) from the world. Rahner's skeptical diagnosis is thus unfortunately not refuted, because also those bishops were not able to accelerate significantly the necessary change of consciousness in the universal Church. It is therefore all the more important to remind us of them. "The signatories to the Catacomb Pact of 1965 have proved by word and deed that a different Church is possible." {25}


Consistent Detachment from the World?

On the basis of the above explicated matter, there is probably no other way but implementing at least some of the self-commitments from the Catacomb Pact, if the call for the Church's detachment from the world and thus her detachment from material and political ties shall be followed by deeds. It would e.g. be possible for bishops, without major constitutional clarifications, to share the lifestyle of the people around them, not to appear as wealthy or even to be rich, or not to be addressed with titles that also or primarily express societal significance or power.

For those self-commitments are not aimed at demonizing power, honor or property as such. The latter are not reprehensible as such "but only if I use them for myself" - here we must agree with Archbishop Zollitsch {26}. Their objective is that they on the one hand are used as instruments and handled accordingly, and on the other hand emphasize the service character of the Church and her loving attention particularly to the poor. Particularly in view of this mission of the Church in the world, the question arises whether it was fortunate to choose the term 'detachment from the world', or whether it wouldn't be better to speak of secularization:

"What is required is not the Church's detachment from the world but her secularization. The latter must not be confused with an adaptation to the factual. It is about the secularization of a church that sees herself as responsible for justice, even for the dead and the victims of history, and she knows that here the limit is reached of human possibilities." {27}

Accordingly, this does not necessarily imply dispensing with the collection of church taxes or with government services - although in individual cases it should be verified whether and to what extent they are (still) justified. On the contrary, the attention is thus primarily drawn to the use of the finances, which in this way are made available for the Church: If they are used for example for the Church's service to people or for fair and appropriate wages, particularly at the lower end of the scale, and not for representative official cars, buildings or the like, which only reinforce the impression of a rich church, then this expresses not only the willingness of relinquishment in favor of those who suffer from poverty that should not exist but also the willingness not only to call for equitable structures but also to implement them.



Of course, the call for detachment from the world or such a secularization of the church does not only apply to those who do a special service in the church but to all believers - but especially the shepherds have the task to set a good example, and the attention "of the world" is especially focused on them:

"The church needn't be necessarily poor, but apostolic simplicity and some Franciscan spirit suits her well and may make her anew credible." {28}

Cardinal Walter Kasper explicitly mentions the reduction of the still usual courtly style in the Vatican or the privileges of the Vatican as a sovereign state. How missionary could a church be where the pope and bishops - or the respective officeholders in other churches - do not make an appearance and are perceived as rich prelates and princes of the Church but abandon according to the call for detachment from the world their material ties, and possibly even bind themselves to the Catacomb Pact?



{1} See Papst Benedikt XVI, Ansprache Seiner Heiligkeit Papst Benedikt XVI. an engagierte Katholiken aus Kirche u. Gesellschaft, in: Apostolische Reise Seiner Heiligkeit Papst Benedikt XVI. nach Berlin, Erfurt u. Freiburg 22. bis 25 September 2011. Predigten, Ansprachen u. Grußworte (VApSt 189, Bonn 2011) 145-151, and above all, Entweltlichung der Kirche? Die Freiburger Rede des Papstes, edited by J. Erbacher (Freiburg 2012).

{2} See Pressebericht des Vorsitzenden der Deutschen Bischofskonferenz, Erzbischof Dr. Robert Zollitsch, anläßlich der Pressekonferenz zum Abschluß der Herbst-Vollversammlung der Deutschen Bischofskonferenz in Fulda am 7. Oktober 2011,3 f. and R. Zollitsch, In der Welt, aber nicht von der Welt, in: Entweltlichung der Kirche? (note 1) 18-33.

{3} R. Hempelmann, Entweltlichung weiterdenken. Der Papst in Deutschland, in: Materialdienst der EZW 11/2011, 403-404, 404.

{4} Benedikt XVI, (note 1) 148.

{5} See about it J. Erbacher, Entweltlichung. Ein Blick in das Frühwerk Joseph Ratzingers, in: Entweltlichung der Kirche? (note 1) 76-89 sowie J. Schelhas, "Entweltlichung" im frühen Werk Joseph Ratzingers, in: Pastoralblatt für die Diözesen Aachen, Berlin, Essen, Hildesheim, Köln, Osnabrück 64 (2012) 115-122.

{6} Schelhas (note 5) 116; see about the biblical references especially Th. Söding, In der Welt, nicht von der Welt. Das Kirchenbild der Freiburger Rede Papst Benedikts XVI. im Licht des Neuen Testaments, in: Entweltlichung der Kirche? (note 1) 61-75.

{7} Söding (note 6) 69.

{8} Benedikt XVI, Ansprache (note 1) 149; see J. Ratzinger, Weltoffene Kirche, in: the same, Das neue Volk Gottes. Entwürfe zur Ekklesiologie (Düsseldorf 1969) 282-301,299.

{9} J. Ratzinger, Die neuen Heiden u. die Kirche (1958/59), in: the same, Kirche Zeichen unter den Völkern. (collected works 8/2) (Freiburg 2010) 1143-1158, 1146.



{10} See ibid. 1151.

{11} Ratzinger, Kirche (note 8) 299.

{12} Benedikt XVI, (note 1) 150.

{13} Ibid. 150 f.

{14} Ibid. 151. "'Detachment from the world' leads therefore anew into the world; it does not write off the world. When believers 'detach themselves from the world', God enables them to acknowledge the earthly things, things that are irrelevant to faith, the autonomy of the worldly areas and to act reasonably and responsibly both in Church and world" (Schelhas, note 5, 121).

{15} See the document "Die dreizehn Selbstverpflichtungen ungenannter Bischöfe auf dem Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzil", in: Concilium (D) 13 (1977) 262 f. und zu den folgenden Ausführungen N. Arntz, "Für eine dienende u. arme Kirche". Der Katakombenpakt als subversives Vermächtnis des II. Vaticanums, in: Religion u. Bildung in Kirche u. Gesellschaft (FS N. Mette), edited by G. Bitter and M. Blasberg-Kuhnke (Würzburg 2011) 297-307.

{16} Quoted from Arntz (note 15) 299 f.

{17} Die dreizehn Selbstverpflichtungen (note 15) 262.

{18} Arntz (note 15) 304.

{19} Ibid. 306. See especially chapter 14 "Armut der Kirche" in: Die Kirche Lateinamerikas. Dokumente der II. u. III. Generalversammlung des Lateinamerikanischen Episkopates in Medellin u. Puebla (Stimmen der Weltkirche 8), edited by Sekretariat der Deutschen Bischofskonferenz (Bonn o. J.).

{20} Aparecida 2007. Schlußdokument der 5. Generalversammlung des Episkopats von Lateinamerika u. der Karibik, edited by Sekretariat der Deutschen Bischofskonferenz (Bonn 2007), No. 393. See in detail B. Bleyer, Option für die Armen. Der Weg der lateinamerikanischen Kirche seit Medellin, in: HerKorr 62 (2008) 479-484.

{21} K. Rahner, Die Unfähigkeit zur Armut in der Kirche, in: the same, Schriften zur Theologie, volume 10 (Einsiedeln 1972) 520-530 (now in: the same, complete works, volume 23, Freiburg 2006, 171-178); see also the same, Theologie der Armut, in: the same, Schriften zur Theologie, volume 8 (Einsiedeln 1966) 435478 (now in: the same, complete works, volume 13, Freiburg 2006, 563-594).

{22} Rahner, Theologie der Armut (note 21) 449 (= complete works 13, 573).

{23} Rahner, Unfähigkeit (note 21) 528 (= complete works 23, 177).

{24} Ibid. 530 (= complete works 23, 178).

{25} Arntz (note 15) 307.

{26} Zollitsch (note 2) 26.

{27} M. Striet, Entweltlichung? Die Freiburger Rede Papst Benedikts XVI. mit Theodor W. Adorno gegengelesen, in: Entweltlichung der Kirche? (note 1) 140-149,149.

{28} W. Kasper, Kirche in der Welt, nicht von der Welt, in: ebd. (note 1) 34-37, 36.


{*} Links to the text of the Catacomb Pact:


Link to 'Public Con-Spiration for-with-of the Poor'