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Harald Baer

Case of Conflict: Scientology

 

From: Stimmen der Zeit, 12/2008, P. 795-807
webmaster's own, not authorized translation

 

    It triggered fierce debates that Hollywood actor Tom Cruise, who is a professing member of Scientology, plays the role of the resistance fighter Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg in the film "Valkyrie" 'coming shortly' in the cinemas. HARALD BAER, expert in issues of religion and world-view at the Catholic Centre for Social Ethics in Hamm introduces to the ideology and practice of a controversial organization.

 

After it had become quieter about Scientology in recent years, the organization has made headlines again through various recent events. The opening of the 4.000-square-meter office in the capital Berlin in January 2007 attracted nation-wide attention. The violent arguments in the German public about the Hollywood actor Tom Cruise, who plays the role of the resistance fighter Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg in the film project "Valkyrie", for months split the arts section (1).

Of great relevance for the political assessment of the grouping is the decision of the Upper Administrative Court of North Rhine-Westphalia of 12 February 2008 allowing the Federal Apartment of the Defence of the Constitution also in future to observe Scientology by means of the intelligence service (2). As already the Administrative Court in Cologne in 2004 also the Supreme Administrative Court Munster saw in the writings of the organization and the actual behaviour of its members concrete evidence of efforts violating the Constitution. What they mainly consist of I will, after clarification of some terms summarize at the end. Against the surveillance by the defence of the constitution ongoing since 1997 Scientology had taken legal action with the argument that it was a religious community and pursued no anticonstitutional goals. The latter assertion was denied by the courts, the former they left open since it was irrelevant for the decision.

 

Religion or Therapeutic Services?

In a recently published anthology Andreas Grünschloß (3) in a synoptic comparison compiled the reasons which speak for and against the presumption to regard Scientology as a religion and on that occasion pointed to the internal contradiction of non-religious justification of religion, particularly to the moral code of conduct. In his analysis of Scientologist primary literature Grünschloß lists a number of to a large extent plausible reasons (4) as example of the "label 'religion'". Here it is about criteria which however in the everyday practice of the grouping are of secondary importance or are, as e.g. the claim to exclusiveness, ambivalent.

 


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At any rate, in one of the few empirical studies on Scientology (5) drop-outs report that only "six percent had mainly and 19 percent somewhat" been interested in the religious aspects of the association.

The decisive motives of the subjects questioned were: looking for experience of their own, self-knowledge, sense, orientation and hope for help with psychological problems, specifically with difficulties in marriage / partnership (46%), with parents (30%) or at the workplace (26%) (6). Even though spirituality in the sense of looking for an expansion of consciousness was a further reason to busy oneself with Scientology, Grünschloß' résumé is nevertheless to be agreed to: " But with the discovery that Scientology has religious characteristics no positive judgment about its quality is connected." (7) Nevertheless the organization referring to its status as religion wants to take advantage of the privileges of the Basic Law Article 4.

In the following I will present central messages and techniques of Scientology, which are connected with the assertion to be a religion as well as with a therapeutic promise, and critically examine them. Whereas Michael Utsch (8) had recently formulated his theological reservations about Scientology's anthropology to a considerably extent from the perspective of Christianity, I will particularly consider the alleged continuity of Scientology with the Eastern religions, since the founder of the Association primarily refers to those traditions.

Scientology is the work of L. Ron Hubbard, who since the 30s was a productive author of future and horror novels. According to his legendary biography he already as a youth on world tours made acquaintance with "Buddhist priests" and on that occasion he had in India and Tibet formed his basic understanding of man through the "teachings of Buddhism and the writings of the Vedas ..." He had allegedly become blood brother with Black Foot Indians and been introduced to psychoanalysis by a friend of his father. The more or less mysterious ingredients Buddhism, American Indian initiations, psychoanalysis, Hinduism and mythology Hubbard brought in connection with something that transcended the level of merely "mystical hocus-pocus". He applied the "precision of Western technology to the study ... of the human mind" (9).

The reasoning is characteristic: Like all previous founders of a religion also Buddha was ultimately "unsuccessful" (10) in his effort to "achieve mental freedom"; only by the "religious technology" or "engineering science" of Scientology people are in a position to understand and improve "all aspects of life." The constantly repeated claim to exclusiveness can be found in all writings of Hubbard (11).

 


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Intramundane Dianetics

Hubbard's important work, "Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health (12) was in 1950 published in a science fiction magazine. The title is derived from the Greek "dianoetikos", which means as much as "concerning the spirit (nous)". That spirit is thought differently by Hubbard at different times. In the Dianetics version of 1950 the analogy to the computer dominates. Its hardware consists of the human brain. The software he calls "mind", which, according to its functions, is divided in an analytical, reactive and somatic mind. The accuracy of the operations attributed to the computer was also found in the analytical mind, which from the perceptions like lightning draws its conclusions and appropriately solves problems. The reactive mind responds only to data of experience according to the pattern of stimulus / response and primarily stores painful impressions. The somatic mind acts exclusively on the physical level.

The material made available to the analytical mind by sensory work is, retrievable at any time, stored in so-called standard memory banks and enables bearings in the three-dimensional world. Actually the system works perfectly, but since there are moments in which the proper sense perception is disturbed, such as unconsciousness, injury and intoxication by drugs, the reactive mind acts as a safety valve and directs the painful energies to the engram banks. In the underground [subconscious mind] those repressed engrams develop subversive activities (they "aberr", as jargon calls it), which let them become the cause of all psychosomatic diseases and neurotic or psychotic personality obstructions. The loss of the original clarity of thought (Clear) leads to the fact that we move in a world of mentally ill people, because all of us, without exception and without being aware of it, have repressed pains in early childhood, which as engrams aberr the analytical mind.

With the help of a certain technology, namely the recall of former events on the biographical time track, it is supposed to be possible together with the situation recalled also to reactivate the emotional quality of the sequence of events at that time. That is supposed to mean that together with the pain also all the other repressed emotions can be experienced again. Following the English term "tone" (mood) Hubbard arranges the feelings in an order that is difficult to be seen through on the so-called gamut from zero to four. Death is located at the one end of the scale, at zero, on the opposite side, at four, the state of happiness. Apathy, fear, pleasure and well-being lie in between. The Aberrated vary daily between 0.5 and three, whereas the Clear moves in the area of the zone four. The latter stage can only be reached with the help of the recall therapy (13).

 


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The technique of recalling is called Auditing, which is derived from the Latin "audire" (listen/hear). Hubbard's instruction that the Auditor (therapist) during the recall is to show no compassion to the Preclear is connected with therapeutic risks. The auditor must not make it too easy for the patient and has to avoid giving signs of affection. In order to experience the revival of all his submerged emotions in the therapy the patient must necessarily undergo those pains which overtaxed him as a child and seemed unbearable. In that theory of the unity of the emotional life Hubbard and the founder of the primal scream / primal therapy Arthur Janov agree (14).

The auditor has officially been acquainted with the attitude to unmask any criticism of Hubbard or Dianetics as false consciousness: "In case the Auditor meets with resistance, hostility towards Dianetics ... etc., he then hears no analytical data but reactive engram contents." (15) When 77 percent of the participants in Henry Küfner's study (16) tell about a ban (enforced by sanctions) on uttering criticism, then it can be guessed by what rigid measures immunization strategies are enforced.

Hubbard's main thesis says that the securing of survival was the highest maxim of the human organism. Avoidance of pain is one element of ensuring the survival (17). On the way from the Aberrated to the Clear across the bridge to total freedom the "dynamics" as levels of being play the role of "survival routes." In a series of concentric circles the individual grows beyond itself and eventually comes into contact with the infinite (18). The last of the existential "driving forces", the "urge to exist as infinity" is used by the Scientologists to legitimate their doctrine as a religion. The eighth dynamic was identical with the "highest" being, "because the symbol for infinity in an upright position results in the numeral '8' (19). The Dianetics book No. 1 of 1950 only speaks about survival as an individual, in a family, as a group and as humankind. The impulses from the area of flora and fauna, the physical universe, the spiritual entities and the infinity , i.e. the dynamics five to eight, were only added in 1955, with the advancement to an occult-transcendent Scientology.

The Clear is a being with superhuman abilities, because he has completely cleared out his reactive engram banks. He has of course an essentially larger intelligence quotient than the mass of people; he manages his life according to rational points of view and is also "totally incapable of being wrong" (20). He is the central subject of the conception of man of the original Dianetics. In 1955 in "Book No. 2" (21) his paranormal talent was described as the ability to exteriorization, as the skill to come off one's body and to undertake astral trips (22).

 


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Occult Scientology

Strictly speaking not the Clear has the ability of exteriorization but a basic mental personality for whom the world of sense experiences is only a stopover. The being imagined as independent of matter and as personal, has the name "Thetan". The Thetan is not only outside of the physical universe but is even the "complete" cause of the MEST world, i.e. the world of "matter, energy, space and time." With the idea of the Thetan the step is taken beyond the intramundane area into a spiritualist Scientology:

"Dianetics turns to the body, Scientology turns to the Thetan. Whereas the Thetan can produce diseases, it is the body that is sick. Dianetics is therefore used to get rid of diseases, unwanted sensations, etc. Scientology and its stages are never used for such things, Scientology is applied to increase spiritual freedom, intelligence and abilities and thus to produce the awareness of immortality." (23)

Dianetics is thus downgraded to a part of Scientology, which is supposed to be responsible for somatic, at the most for psychosomatic defects.

The anthropological basic scheme was on that occasion hardly changed: The Thetan too has an archive of stored data at its disposal on its time track, which are aberrated by engrams that are now called facsimiles. They admittedly impede the Thetan in its possibilities to express himself, but - thanks to Scientology's system of courses - they cannot once and for all prevent that it establishes its relationship to the eighth of dynamics of infinity. The way of the aberrated Thetan to total freedom, to the operating Thetan (OT) in its initial steps runs analogously to the eight dynamics. When in the OT courses I to VIII there is talk about "the gateway to self" being opened, the "direction to the full cause for life" being taken and the "main reason for the forgetting on the total time track" (24) being unveiled, then you need only again call to mind the summary of the eight dynamics to see how Hubbard's ideas are repeated under slightly changed conditions.

When in an advertising brochure of the Scientology organization it says: "That is you, the immortal spiritual being, the person itself, symbolized by the Greek letter Theta" (25), then up to the choice of words the Thetan seems to be identified with the Self / Id of the Upanischaden - "Tat Tvam Asi," the actual message of Chandogya-Upanishad, is translated as "That is you yourself", namely the indestructible All-Spirit (Brahman), which is incarnated in the individual being (Atman). Atman and Thetan are admittedly imagined beyond the body, but apart from that minimum consensus the number of differences is considerable.

 


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As a result of the fact that Atman is identical with Brahman it is an impersonal, uninvolved observer of that mortal Self / Id (Jiva) that produces duality and causality, identifies with body and thinking, and is subject to the cycle of rebirths. In contrast to that the Thetan is constructed not only as person but in an alarmingly anthropomorphic way. Aggressions, envy and hatred are not alien to him, which is proved by the fact that he gives electric shocks to other Thetans, gouges out their eyes and cuts them into two halves {26).

It is almost superfluous to say that the idea of the Thetans can neither be connected with the Vedic nor with the Buddhist tradition. The anti-substantial position of Buddhist philosophy says 'no' to an eternal, immaterial Self (Atman) as the last reason of the material existence. To attribute the parallels between Scientology and Hinduism resp. Buddhism to the interpretation system of reincarnation has a pretty narrow base, because the idea of repeated lives on earth belongs to the dogmatic common knowledge of most esoteric groups in the West. In contrast to the ideas of the Hereafter, for example of Anthroposophy / Theosophy, and thus in accordance with the Hindu / Buddhist ideas Scientology's "soul" can also be re-embodied in animals and plants (27).

The explanatory model of reincarnation and with it that of the Thetan marks the break in the development of Dianetics to Scientology. In the theory of the analytical and reactive mind "previous lives" were of no importance. That changed with the metaphysical speculation over man as a Thetan, which was not shared by supporters of the original Dianetics. According to Hubbard at the moment of physical death (28) the Thetan once and for all exteriorizes and takes on a new body in which he can put "old tin cans, jangling chains ... and other energy phenomena" (29) of which he already in his former body had grown very fond. In other words, in every new existence the Thetan creates for himself a body of the same kind as he had it before, which is justified by the Scientologists with the existence of the law of karma. In the classic Far Eastern religions the causality of retaliation is regulated by the law of cause and effect. Scientology enabled the Thetan by Auditing of the aberrating facsimiles that it needs no longer to be at the mercy of those effects but ultimately to become the sole cause of the physical universe.

The aim of Auditing is to change the reactive engrams into elements of remembrance which do not only not weigh upon man's mind but enlarge the standard memory banks of the analytical mind and thus intelligence as such. In 1950, at the time of Dianetics One, the auditing process not yet matured so that the status of freedom striven for could be checked over by an observable experiment. That was to change with the use of a simple device for measuring the electrical skin resistance. The Preclear in each hand holds a tin can which is via cable connected with an ampere meter (E-meter).

 


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The excitation of the nervous system changes the resistance through the activity of the sweat glands.

Current strength and skin resistance are inversely proportional to each other. The psychiatrist Hans Kind emphasizes that the movement of the needle can at the most reflect the intensity but not the kind of emotion. That is contrary to the assertion of Scientologists to be able with the help of E-Meter auditing to identify the emotional state of clients on the gamut and thus not only the quantity but the quality of his feelings.

Hubbard's theory assumes that an engram is then deleted when an inner involvement of the Preclear with a certain recall can no longer be noted, i.e. his skin resistance is so big and the sweating so small that the current strength tends towards zero. From tests about the susceptibility to interference of lie detectors, which work on a similar principle as the E-Meters, we know that measurable physiological reactions and the subject's corresponding feelings and thoughts need by no means always be directly connected with each other. On the contrary, through mental training and control rather dissociation and paradoxical phenomena can result.

So if the E-Meter, after repeated insistence of the auditor on an alleged engram, signals a high resistance and a low current, there can be also other reasons than the disappearance of the causes of aberrations: For example, the permanent "harping on one point" can lead to deadening, fatigue and surfeit on the part of the Preclear. Hansjörg Hemmingen points to other system deficiencies of the E-Meter (30): The currents to be measured are so small that a mere change in the position of your fingers can cause considerable deflections of the needle. To maintain the constancy of conductivity in medical studies electrodes are fastened to the body using electrolyte paste (and not to the hands). No physician would get the idea to use cans.

 

Critical Assessment

Hubbard's auditors code contradicts the assertion that Scientology was in the tradition of early Buddhism. In all Buddhist schools, especially in the "Great Vehicle" empathy and compassion (mahakaruna and mudita) belong to the perfection of wisdom. Also the occult construct of an immaterial Thetan is incompatible with Buddhism and Hinduism. It admittedly is not subject to death and birth, but its all too human quality of aggression does not allow to connect it with Atman or the innate Buddha nature. Scientologists like to say their Thetan had regained "similar qualities as described in the Bodhisattva ideal of Buddhism" (31)

 


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and only too easily overlook then that that Bodhisattva ideal is characterized by the practice of the perfect four "divine states of dwelling" (Brahma-viharas), to which apart from compassion (mahakaruna) and sharing in the joy of others also boundless kindness and equanimity belong.

Buddhist groupings which in the Federal Republic organized into the German Buddhist Union (DBU) have been called upon by Scientologists to cooperate. The response was an unambiguous demarcation. In the "Lotusblättern" the former communication organ of DBU "sect problems" within and outside that umbrella organization were frankly discussed.

As an example of trends of pocketing the effort of Scientologists was mentioned to make a stand together with Buddhist groups against "shared discrimination". On the part of the DBU was then noted that "Scientology's conception of man (has) nothing in common with the Buddhist one". There were in general no similarities between the doctrine of Scientology and Buddhism (32).

Although Hubbard never tires of producing analogies between brain and computer, his knowledge of data processing must be described as meagre and superficial. In doing so he does justice neither to the functioning and the structures of perception of the human central nervous system nor to the specific arithmetical operations of the so-called artificial intelligence. The same can rightly be said with regard to his knowledge of Eastern religions. Hubbard adds disconnected hackneyed ideas and distorts them so much that with the description of the immortal spirit as man's innermost being the core of Buddhist and Hindu ideas is missed and turned into the opposite.

The result of the mixture of Buddhism, Shamanism and psychoanalysis as well as of computer technology put into 'Scientology' form is a technical, ultimately objectified understanding of reality and spirit. Man's actual destination is no longer found beyond the reach of language and thought but in the solid field of measurable and calculable things.

On 11 May 1963 Hubbard can therefore report of a trip to the Beyond, which in the evening at ten o'clock and half a minute lasted for 43891832611117 years, 344 days, 10 hours, 20 minutes and 40 seconds" (33). The cage of space and time is so not overcome, it is only magnified into eerie dimensions. The origin of Hubbard's answer to the essential question is not to be looked for in early Buddhism but where he has his real talent: in the fantastic world of science fiction novels (34). So not only the positivist Dianetics but also Scientology, which is conceived in a spiritualist way, remain like any occult metaphysics intramundane.

The Beyond of Scientologists is quantifiable, for as long as it can be measured with the help of numbers (no matter how great) we are moving in this world which can be experienced through our sensory organs.

 


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That also applies to all forms of empirical proofs. When Hubbard's followers say, "In Scientology today ... the proof of the existence of former lives is a fact" (35), by that statement they trip themselves up in several respects in their intention to give a valid answer to the question of man's where from and where to. According to the definition the things that are capable of proof in experiment, verification and falsification can intersubjectively be checked. The object, namely transcendence allegedly made accessible by the Law of reincarnation, would thus be in the area of observable things and at nature's disposal.

Scientology offers a specific service: at the level of the individual the promise of a therapy that is ideologically charged and aims at liberating from trauma symptoms and at maximizing performance, and at the global level at nothing less than saving mankind (Clear the planet).

Hubbard's draft of Dianetics of 1950 can be understood as a variant of the Freudian idea of the mental apparatus as ego, id and super-ego. Apart from the postulate of the unconscious and pre-conscious there are correspondences in the theory of dreams. To become aware of repressed experiences was, according to the early Sigmund Freud and Hubbard, to grant healing. But the therapeutic practice shows that the detection of the original scenes, the cathartic method alone does not let disappear the symptom for ever. The psychiatric analysis by Hans Kind could attest the auditing technique no actual therapeutic effect, but at best the possibility of a working off (of) affective tensions.

On the other hand there are many risks which, especially with clients who have little resistance, can cause a solidification of the clinical picture. Hubbard has laid down the lack of transparency of the procedure as well as the ban on any emotional attention to the Preclear in the so-called Auditors Code. As a result there is the danger that auditing degenerates to a mechanical ritual the sense of which remains the more hidden to the client the less he is given background informations.

What is worse, with his instructions Hubbard violates fundamental therapeutic insights. The fundamental social interaction in the therapy process, namely the quality of the relationship between therapist and patient, is crucial to the success of psychological treatment (36). The transference phenomena, which may arise in that relationship, as well as the counter-transferences triggered on the therapist's side can contribute to the progress of the treatment when they are taken as theme and dealt with. But just that does not happen during the auditing. Working on resistances and conflicts as well as concrete assistance in coping with and actively shaping of one's own life is not done through Dianetics (37).

In addition, methods are used which are comparable with "psychological manipulation techniques as they are used in totalitarian states to ,weaken the personality'" (38).

 


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Fears are stirred up, double-bind constellations established and under group pressure soul-destroying, monotonous and frustrating tasks must be fulfilled without giving the individual the opportunity to raise an objection. A sophisticated system of reward and punishment, which uses gross sanctions, as e.g. the exposure of participants, purposefully limits the autonomy of the members.

Especially the institutional side of the redefined "ethics" is in collision with the idea of the rule of law. To be up to the tricks of the so-called "antisocial personality", which does not stand out by a lack of individual morality but by "falling statistics", i.e. a lack of efficiency, a bundle of internal control measures is devised, as e.g. ethics E-meter checks, security checks and knowledge reports. Individual, e.g. critical family members are declared to be "suppressive" people from whom a Scientologist has to part, or even entire occupational groups to which primarily psychiatrists and psychologists belong. Lawyers have to examine whether there exists the offence of incitement of the people.

A catalogue of standards serves the disciplining and mutual monitoring of the employees. Its rules serve exclusively the enforcement of the interests of the organization; it is not about the interests of the individual (39). Regarding the terms "crime" and "serious crimes" almost paranoid conspiracy theory definitions can be found (40), culminating in apostasy. Minimal mistakes are already classified as crimes.

The borderline of legality is at the latest crossed where "black propaganda" is used, as e.g. "telephone campaigns against critics, spying by private detectives, infiltrating Scientologists into critical organizations, bombarding critics with penal charges and civil suits, starting proceedings in order financially to ruin critics, libel, defamation and false statements, break-in at government offices" (41).

The unauthorized practice of medicine is another criminal act, provided that the state guidelines for the non-medical practitioner or for psychotherapists are not met. According to investigations of a lawyer on behalf of the Ministry of Labour, Health and Social Affairs of North Rhine-Westphalia (42) in Germany alone until the mid-90s the courts had in more than 300 cases to deal with the Scientology organization. In the brochure "Defence of the Constitution as Instrument of Character Assassination" published by "Church" a lawyer maintains that in Germany the "entire state apparatus of repression" was brought up against the Scientology organization, what in combination with "villainous journalism ... represented the real danger for the continued existence of our liberal democratic state founded on the rule of law".

 


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With the help of that reasoning figure Scientology tries simply to turn the tables. The observation by the authorities responsible for the defence of the Constitution takes place because of anticonstitutional goals. There is concrete evidence that the dignity of man and the right to equal treatment were to be reduced or abolished, as the Cologne Administrative Court in a decision dated 11 November 2004 has stated (44). The Scientologist idea that Civil Rights are not granted to those who are placed below the level 2, 0 on the gamut is based on the rejection of democracy, to which of course also an opposition belongs. Critics of the organization were without exception regarded as mentally ill, aberrated and criminals you were allowed to sue, to tell lies to and to destroy.

Imagination or more precisely, fantasies of omnipotence in the context of experience of real impotence were of great importance in Hubbard's thinking. The inability to deal with constructive criticism was on the one hand the cause to design a pathological threat scenario and on the other hand to propagate aggressive claims to highest authority. A realistic assessment of Hubbard's achievements is to be wished his successors.

 

NOTES

(1) www.spiegel.de/kultur/kino/0,1518,druck-493153,00.html (date 10.7.2007). "Is Tom Cruise, the sectarian and absolute follower of a dubious secret organization allowed to play the German resistance hero Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg?" This rhetorically meant question was asked by Frank Schirrmacher, in order to answer it in the affirmative by awarding Cruise the "Bambi for Courage". Berthold Graf Schenk von Stauffenberg, the son of the resistance fighter had previously clearly judged, "He is to steer clear of my father."

(2) http://www.ovg.nrw.de/presse/pressem/2008/p080212.htm (Stand 12.2.2008).

(3) A. Grünschloß, "To get Ethics in". Ethik, Religion u. Organisation bei Scientology, in: Wie gefährlich ist Scientology?, edited by M. Utsch (EZW-Texte No. 197,2008) 21ff.

(4) "Existence of transition rites, listing of Hubbard's writings as canonical books, hagiographization of the founder figure, claim to exclusive superiority, ideas of souls and rebirth ..., liberation of the soul from the MEST universe - including the (re-)acquisition of para-normal abilities, mythological ultimate justifications ..., conception of oneself (inter alia) as a religion and church." Equally strong reasons are opposed to that: "Conception of itself as a science, research and technology as well as applied philosophy and a kind of therapeutic technology to modify behaviour, business in the service sector with 'hard sell' strategies, sale maximization is declared to be the gaol, its activities mainly centre on intramundane 'success', 'religious affairs' appear as minor matter, multidimensional self-image: 'Religion' is neither the sole nor the central level of self-presentation," in EZW texts No. 197.29. A very contradictory self-image is therefore to be recorded.

(5) Gesundheitliche u. rechtliche Risiken bei Scientology, edited by H. Küfner and others (Lengerich 2002) 24.

(6) In the same place 85f.

(7) Grünschloß (note 3) 30.

 


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(8) M. Utsch, Psychologische Irrtümer der Dianetik u. theologische Kritik an der Scientology-Lehre, in: Wie gefährlich ist Scientology? (note 3).

(9) C. Evans, Kulte des Irrationalen (Reinbek 1979) 23.

(10) L. Ron Hubbard, Das Handbuch für den Ehrenamtlichen Geistlichen (Kopenhagen 1980) X.

(11) "Wer bin ich? Warum bin ich hier? Wohin gehe ich? ... Vor Scientology wurde keine dieser Fragen beantwortet", in: Das Scientology-Handbuch (Kopenhagen 1994) Cover. Bis Hubbard die Bühne des Lebens betrat, standen "keine klaren Antworten zur Verfügung". Werden diese Behauptungen ernstgenommen, dann sind sie ein Beleg für die Arroganz scientologischer Ignoranz. ["Who am I? Why am I here? Where to do I go? ... Before Scientology none of those question has got an answer", in: Das Scientology-Handbuch (Kopenhagen 1994) Cover. Until Hubbard made his appearance "clear answers were missing". If those assertions are taken seriously then they a proof of the arrogance of Scientologist ignorance.]

(12) L. R. Hubbard, Dianetik: Die moderne Wissenschaft der geistigen Gesundheit (Kopenhagen 1986).

(13) As review of the gamut see Utsch (note 8) 84f.

(14) In his medical opinion on Dianetics (Scientology) H. Kind establishes parallels between early psychoanalysis, Janov's primal therapy and Dianetics. In the text L. Ron Hubbard. Scientology - Die Grundlagen des Denkens (Kopenhagen 1972) 102f. the author works out a so-called Auditor Code which inter alia has the following instructions: "8. Do not feel sorry for the Preclear ... 12. Reduce every delay of communication by repeatedly using the same question or the same process ... 13. Continue a process until it effects a change ... 15. Do never merge the processes of Scientology with other practices ... 19. Do not give any explanations, justifications or excuses for any faults made in Auditing, it does not matter whether they are real or imagined faults"; quoted from H. Kind, in: AGPF-Materialdienst 6/89 (19.4.1989) 8.

(15) Dianetik 232, quoted from Kind (note 14) 9.

(16) Küfner inter alia (note 5) 98.

(17) H. Hemminger argues under the title "Symptom oder Krankheit" (in: EK 6/92,332 f.) from the biblical perspective against Hubbard's basic assumption of the primacy of survival and the intention connected with it to exercise power over others and the world.

(18) Das Scientology-Handbuch (note 11) 50ff.

(19) Hubbard (note 10) 49.

(20) Dianetik 30, quoted from Kind (note 14) 5.

(21) W. Thiede, Scientology - Religion oder Geistesmagie (Konstanz 1992) 69.

(22) In just that skill, to stabilize the status that sets in after the spirit has left the body the historic Bhudda failed, "He didn't know how to do it" (Hubbard, note 10, X).

(23) L. v. Billerbeck and F. Nordhausen, Der Sekten-Konzern Scientology auf dem Vormarsch (Berlin 1993) 41.

(24) See Thiede (note 21) 71f.

(25) Advertising leaflet of Scientology, quoted from R. Hummel, "Der Tod ist eine technische Angelegenheit". L. Ron Hubbards scientologische Reinkarnationsvorstellungen, in: Materialdienst der EZW, 11/91,324.

(26) Scientology: A History of Man, 73ff., quoted from Hummel (note 25) 326.

(27) In the same place 328.

(28) L. R. Hubbard, Haben Sie vor diesem Leben gelebt? (Kopenhagen 1979) 39: "Only in Scientology the mechanism of death has thoroughly been understood."

(29) In the same place 42, quoted from (note 25) 328.

(30) H. Hemminger, Das Buch Nr. 1: Dianetik - Das dianetische Heil, in: Materialdienst der EZW 5/92,140ff.

(31) Die Scientology Kirche in Deutschland - Informationen u. Verständnis (München 1985) 3.

(32) Lotusblätter 2/95,55f.

(33) V. Albers, Vom Science-Fiction-Autor zum Sektenguru, in: Mission mit allen Mitteln, edited by Jörg Herrmann (Reinbek 1992) 60.

(34) Die Scientology-Kirche in Deutschland (note 31) 6: "Scientology understands itself as Gnostic

 


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religion of redemption in the tradition of early Buddhismus and is looking for redemption of man through self-knowledge and and his connection with God." Ideas of God, it doesn't matter of what kind, are not compatible with (early) Buddhism.

(35) Hubbard (note 28) 3.

(36) See Wege zum Menschen, Methoden u. Persönlichkeiten moderner Psychotherapie. Ein Handbuch, edited by H. Petzold (Paderborn 1985) 30 f.; see also about it: Kind (note 14) and Hemminger (note 30).

(37) Utsch (note 8) 78f. lists further serious psychological risks and misinterprations regarding the emotions and the alleged ability to "delete" them.

(38) Küfner inter alia (note 5) 119.

(39) In the same place 25.

(40) "General Crimes, 1. Organizing or allowing a gathering or meeting of staff members or field auditors or the public to protest the orders of a senior", in: L. Ron Hubbard, Introduction to Scientology Ethics (Copenhagen 1973) 47. The realization of that guideline would take away the basis of any trade union work.

(41) Ch. and. M. Minhoff, Scientology. Irrgarten der Illusionen. Sonderausgabe für die Landeszentrale für Politische Bildung und die Innenbehörde der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg (1998) 148f.

(42) D. Spürck, Die "Scientology-Organisation" in der Rechtsprechung deutscher Gerichte, in: Die Scientology-Organisation. Zweiter Bericht des Ministeriums für Arbeit, Gesundheit u. Soziales des Landes NRW (1997) 47.

(43) A. Diringer, Die Brücke zur völligen Freiheit?, EZW-Texte, No. 188 (2007) 55.

(44) Verwaltungsgericht Köln, 20 K 1882/03, verdict of 11.11.2004.

 

Link to 'Public Con-Spiration for-with-of the Poor'