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Thomas Gertler

Spiritual Exercises and World Mission


From: Thomas Gertler/Stephan Kessler/Willig Lambert(Hg.),
Zur größeren Ehre Gottes (c) Verlag Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau, 2006
webmaster's own, not authorized translation


The Spiritual Exercises are the largest gift that Ignatius left to the church. There one can intensively experience how God's word is able to transform, comfort, release, reconcile and inspire human beings within a short time. Spiritual Exercises are so probably one of the most effective ways to spread the gospel. The reason is the way how the word of God is imparted and acquired as well as the contents with which the Spiritual Exercises confront. Both belong together. Both are equally important. After the silence for many years now the topic "mission" moved again into the focus of theological interest. But often it is not clear how one should do "missionary work" or pass on the faith. Basic thesis of this article is that the steps gone by Ignatius within the Spiritual Exercises with the practicing person are generally also the steps to faith, hence those steps that have to be gone in the missionary work as path to the Christian faith. On the other hand there is in the triad of God's word, spiritual director and retreatant a completely similar network of relations as between the message of the gospel, the messenger and the receiver of the message in the mission.

If we look how in the last decades the understanding of the Spiritual Exercises developed - and also the way to give them, then it is amazing how these questions and many topics of mission theology run parallel and shed light upon each other. So the discovery of the way how St Ignatius let in the Spiritual Exercises work the gospel can inspire us today to find ways for an effective missionary work - and to go them. {1} There cannot be traced all possible parallels and drawn all consequences. This article may rather encourage own thinking and discovering.


1. Spiritual Exercises and Motives for the Missionary Work

For many generations of Jesuits the Spiritual Exercises played an important role for the motivation to go into the mission. {2} Three meditations were above all important thereby. The so-called 'Second Week' of the retreat begins with the first of those three exercises. There the Call of the King for his knights is meditated, in order to consider thus - by an at that time quite topical example - the vocation of the Christians by Christ, the eternal king of the whole world. The earthly king addresses his people: "It is my will to conquer the whole country of the unbelievers" (conquistar toda la tierra de infieles, EB 93). Christ, the eternal king, addresses his people: "It is my will to conquer the whole world and all enemies (conquistar todo el mundo) and so to enter into the glory of my father. Hence those who want to accompany me have to strive with me, so that they by following me in the agony will follow me also in the glory" (EB 95). Thus Ignatius refers not only to the context of his time, but puts also the basis for the later linguistic usage, according to which the missions in America and Asia were called "conquista espiritual". {3}

The second consideration motivating to mission is about the Incarnation (EB 101 - 109). Here the retreatant looks with the eyes of the divine persons, "How they see the whole face or roundness of the earth and all peoples: in such a great blindness, and how they die and descend to hell" (EB 106). And he/she regards how the divine persons decide, "Let us work the release of humankind" (EB 107). In the closing prayer one may "ask, according to the way one feels, to follow more and imitate our Lord who became just recently man" (EB 109), and so to enter into the Son's mission that comes from the Father. How much that view was reflected in St Francis Xavier's motivation shows his famous letter that he wrote in 1544 from India: "Many times I am moved by the thought to go to the universities of Europe, particularly to the Sorbonne in Paris, and there - loud crying as if out of my senses - to say to those whose education is greater than their desire to use it well: How many souls abandon the way of salvation and come by their carelessness into hell! If they with the same eagerness, with which they do their studies, would also give account about the thing that God will demand of them, and about the talent that he gave them, many of them would be moved to seize the necessary means, to make the Spiritual Exercises in order to recognize and feel the divine will in their souls, and to make themselves more homogeneous to it than to their own inclinations, by saying: 'Lord, here I am. What do you want that I am to do? Send me wherever you want, and if it is favourable even to India.'" {4}

Finally the third consideration confronts two armies to each other: the banner of Christ and the banner of Lucifer, the mortal enemy of our human nature (EB 136 - 148). There it is about the contrast between the proceedings of the two: Lucifer leads by cunning, force and seduction ('nets and chains') to wealth, honour and finally to pride - and from there to all other vices (EB 142). Contrary Christ leads first against wealth from spiritual poverty to actual poverty, secondly against worldly honour to defamations and to being despised and thirdly against pride to humility (EB 146). It is crucially important to see here how from the outset Ignatius did in the spiritual conquest of the world - in contrast to the Conquista America - not rely on force and coercion or on greed for gold, but expected that the missionaries lead the life of the poor, obedient and humble Christ. That shows in which way the gospel is to be preached, and the way in which it can be accepted. There is needed the preacher's freedom of egoistic interests, and freedom must be left to the listener of the Good News. Francis Xavier and others did accordingly live and work. And they suffered from the fact that so many Christians were so much possessed by greed and violence, when they came into the new countries{5}.


2. The methodology of the Spiritual Exercises

By this we arrived already at an important point: How can the gospel bear fruit in the hearts of man?

The Spiritual Exercises look for and create conditions, "(to) let the creator directly work with his creature, and the creature with his/her Creator and Lord." (EB 15). Outward conditions are thereby seclusion and silence, freedom of external attractions and influences (EB 20). In such outward boredom the human heart will become sensitive again, and will begin to 'talk'. First frequently in a tormenting and disturbing way, because usually first all the things will ascend that are repressed and usually covered by noise and diversion. But you will soon see then also on the faces of the retreatants how the silence changes into peace. Thereby a situation will arise that corresponds to that of Ignatius' long illness, when he - by the outward want of stimuli - began to be surprised about the different effects that the different dreams about the possible aims of his life had on his inner mood (BP 6 - 8). Other outward conditions will be changed according to the meditated events/contents, and are described in the special weeks: Fasting or penitential exercises in the first week (EB 78, EB 89), brightness and imagining of cheerful things in the fourth week (EB 229).

The most important internal condition for the Spiritual Exercises is, "to enter into them with great courage and generosity towards your Creator and Lord, by offering him your whole wanting and your whole freedom, so that the divine majesty may use your person as well as everything else that you have, according to his holiest will" (EB 5). For sense and aim of the Spiritual Exercises is to attain this freedom, i.e. to get free from all dependences and disorders, and so to be able to recognize and to do God's will (EB 1). In 'Principle' and 'Foundation' (EB 23), which describes this attitude in principle, Ignatius calls it "indifference". It does just not mean equanimity in the sense of insouciance, but a last decidedness in the hierarchy of values, namely to prefer nothing to the will of God. Thus anything else will become secondary, and in this sense indifferent for me. I am free towards poverty and wealth, health and illness, to a long life or a short one. Certainly, we saw it already and we will still deal with the fact that there is then nevertheless a preference in relation to Jesus' poor and obedient way of life. Hence we can record: Starting point for the Spiritual Exercises is the longing of the retreatant for a greater freedom, and it is the aim of the Exercises to attain this greater freedom. It will be found in the approximation to Jesus' way of life, in which the highest freedom is realized.

For the Spiritual Director of the Exercises it applies in even greater measure that he has that internal freedom, and that he must not urge the retreatant in certain directions, but he/she has to "let work the creator with the creature" (EB 15). For this however he/she on his/her part has also to care then as intensively as possible. The freedom, with which the Exercises are concerned, is not an abstract and empty one, but a filled and directed freedom. {6} It has as content the freedom of the other person, and as direction the increasing freedom. Both must become concrete then in the life of the individual. That is the task of the Exercises.


3. The Dynamics of the Exercises as a Way to Faith

The dynamics or the internal process of the retreat is - similarly as its methodology - also always the dynamics as it is found and carried out by people of a certain epoch within the framework of St Ignatius' Spiritual Exercises. That does not mean that it fundamentally changes time and again in the different epochs, but the dynamics gets time-related accentuations. The important discovery of the last fifty years is the meaning of the 'Principle and Foundation' of the Exercises: "Man is created in order to praise God our Lord, to revere and to serve him, and so to save its soul. The other things on the face of the earth are created for the sake of man and may help it to pursue the aim for which it has been created. From there follows that man is to use them so far as they help it to achieve its aim, and so far to free itself from them as it is hindered by them from achieving it. Therefore it is necessary that we make ourselves indifferent in relation to all created things, in everything that is allowed and not forbidden to the liberty of our free decision power. Hence we are not to want on our part: Health rather than illness, wealth rather than poverty, honour rather than infamy, a long life rather than a short one; and exactly the same therefore in anything else, by wishing and choosing only the things that lead us more to the aim to which we are created" (EB 23).

This text has been discovered on the one hand in its theological meaning: as a summary it contains already the Exercises altogether. But above all it was recognized as spiritual basis of the retreat process. It must not be understood as Catechism text but has to be duplicated in the religious experience. That we are created for the praise of God means - applied to us -, that we are created to experience God's kindness and love, because only then we are able to praise and laud God. Hence the first step in the Exercises is that the one who makes the Exercises looks on all experiences of love and kindness that she/he made in her/his life, and becomes aware of the actutal ways in which God's love and kindness came to her/him. Today to those meditations is temporally dedicated the first or better zero week of the Exercises. {7}

This was different in former times. But in modern times everyday life and Christian faith are no longer so directly connected with one another. Faith does no longer possess, as a matter of course, the interpretation sovereignty over all experiences. Hence this fundamental text needs not only a short memory, but must be filled with meditations about one's life - where God is found in everyday life. Important for the meditations about the 'foundation' is that these experiences of love and kindness are not relativized at once but are taken seriously as experiences applying to me personally, and by which I myself am meant by God. Certainly, there arises at once the question about the negative experiences that cry mostly much louder and are much more present.

Thus the dynamics of the Foundation meditation(s) will automatically lead to St Ignatius' topic of the first week, i.e. the reconciliation with God or, negatively formulated, to the argument with sin and evil. For I am only able really to trust and engage in God, if God can be found not only in positive and beautiful experiences but when he remains even in view of my hard experiences of wrong, guilt and death the good and loving God. To begin with Ignatius lets look at the destructive power of evil in the world. This evil and destructive power exists. It intends finally nothingness and extermination, while God as creator intends life and its preservation. Eventually I will also regard the destructive forces in my life, the denial, the 'No'. I take it seriously. Yes, it is so. There is such a power in my life, leading into the 'out', into nothingness and death. That power is not only by the bad others. I myself am deeply involved in it, more deeply than I admit. Often up to the point that I mean: I will never be able to get out there. It is a miracle that this evil in my life led not already long since into the disaster. Yes, it is true, this is a miracle. Ignatius lets us muse upon it with astonishment (EB 60). Hence there must be in my life a strength that protected me from the worst. Truly, it is by no means my merit. I am to consider and meditate that (EB 53): The miracle, that the Evil One did - without my merit - not yet reach his aim: my destruction.

If I really embark on that and see this miracle, then I will make the liberating experience of the New Testament: that God - incomprehensibly - loves the sinner and enemy (Joh 3:16). Thus it is this power that has always protected my life. Hence the truth about me, that I am a sinner, is not to make me small but free. It is good news, because God's love has always embraced us already, also when we did not want it, and said 'No'. Jesus has already freed us (Rom 3:23f; 5:8; 1 Joh 4:9f). If I - in view of my life - can accept this experience: God's love got the start of me and did in Christ always the first step toward me, then I will be able to believe that God is good not only in the positive experiences of my life, but then I will recognize him as loving and good God also in the hard experiences. Then I am able to do the next step: I enter the second week which is shaped by Christ's call, as we heard it already above in the meditations which let so many (Jesuits) undertake the missionary work.

Now I can believe that actually the call of Christ, the eternal king, will lead me not into slavery or misfortune, but into freedom and truth. Now I am able to open for it, and I am also to do it: believe in God and become converted. That will lead to the actual question: What am I to do? Or to the topic of Christ's call. Here now also the initial openness for any form of discipleship is - in view of Jesus' concrete life - lead into the direction of a life in poverty, contempt and humility (EB 146), but I will always leave to God the freedom ("if his Divine Majesty is served thereby, and if he wants to choose and accept me", EB 147). In this second week now Jesus' life is to be meditated in detail, his preaching and doings, and to win from there the yardstick for my choice. This choice is then also to be made in the second week as answer to the call of the great king. Only by their resolution will those who make the Exercises really participate in God's love and freedom - for he opens to them. That is therefore then also the time when great joy is experienced.

The choice that has been made while meditating Jesus' words and deeds, with the help of the rules to distinct the spirits and by the discussions with the spiritual director, is proven then in the so called "third week". It confronts with Jesus' suffering and the cross. The point is that I not only recognize God's kindness also in suffering and in view of the evil, no, here it is about a further step that leads me more deeply into faith: namely into the readiness to shoulder suffering and evil by following Christ, without despairing of God - just as Jesus did. Hence to continue to believe, to hope and to love, even if God is silent and the sky darkens. So the one who makes die Exercises is drawn into the mystery of salvation or of Jesus' love that reveals itself most deeply (up to the extreme Joh 13:1), and thus as saving power, in the powerlessness at the cross. By accompanying Jesus on this way the retreatant will get loosened from her/himself, and the more that happens she/he will become for others too a sign and tool of salvation. That is then completed in the "fourth week", in which the Exercises are closed by meeting the Risen Lord, and by (more deeply) joining the new, spirit-filled community of the believers, i.e. the church.

This way of the Exercises has been described so in detail, because it is everyone's way to faith. In the one or other form - with different accents, there will be always the same steps that are to be gone: from the experience of love and kindness over the argument with evil and wrong to conversion, faith and discipleship.


4. The Change in the Understanding of Mission

In the last hundred years mission and mission theology underwent a change, as probably hardly any other theological subject and pastoral practice. At the same time also all other experiences of the world church are present therein: from the development problems of the poor countries, to the questions of other religions to Christianity, up to globalization. {8}

About the turn from the 19th to the 20th century the (world) mission was in full bloom, and there was not any doubt about its legitimacy and also about its method. Well, one became aware of the fact that the division of the church into different denominations stood in the way of the mission and its credibility. Thus just that observation led to the beginning of the ecumenical movement with the Conference of World Mission in Edinburgh 1910, following the word of St John: "That all might be one, and thus the world believes" (Joh 17:21). Creditable mission is only possible if there is also an effort for the re-union of the churches. But in reality not only the splitting of the churches was an obstacle to the credibility of the mission. Similarly as we have seen it for the mission of the church in the 16th century, the credibility was opposed by the fact that the Europeans in the 19th century strove - together with the mission - also for the propagation of the European-North American civilization, and that from a superiority feeling that was taken for completely naturally by the missionaries{9}. It was frequently also connected with the economic interests of their homelands. We meet here - in analogy to the faith process in the Spiritual Exercises - the problem that, if the preacher or spiritual director does not know her/his real interests, and does not possess the freedom to place really God's will in the first place, s/he will do damage to the aim of spreading the Good News, i.e. to the freedom of God and of those who take part in the Exercises. By the matter-of-course feeling of superiority the 'preacher' will then also not notice the things that can be contributed by those to whom s/he brings the message of God, or the things that are worked long since by God's grace.

By the ending of the colonial age and the revolutionary movements of the sixties and seventies of the past century the view of mission theology changed. One could no longer look as before at the "objects" of mission. One became aware of the history of guilt of the missionary work. {10} But it has also to be said that on the back of that history of guilt just the experiences of the missionaries with the native population contributed to the success of human rights, that cultures, religions and languages have not only been disturbed and destroyed but also retained and secured, that living conditions have actually been improved and that the value of the individual person was noticed more clearly.

To that change of view also factors contributed that can be called inner-theological. The world-wide trigger within the Catholic Church was the Second Vatican Council. Together with the bishops from all over the world one became aware also of the problems of the world, particularly of the so-called Third World. The world came into view also theologically. {11} Above all the Pastoral Constitution on the Church "Gaudium spes", about the church in the world from today, tries to answer to that. The Council wants namely to address "in the light of Christ ... all people, in order to lighten up the mystery 'man', and to cooperate in the effort to find solutions for the most urgent questions of our time" (GS 10.2).

But also in Decree on the Church's Missionary Activity "Ad Gentes" is seen that apart from preaching Christ there is needed to respond to the actual needs. A comprehensive understanding of mission is particularly found in the apostolic writing of Pope Paul VI "Evangelii Nuntiandi" (1975), a document that is up to this day fundamental. But its effect was often not as balanced as the document. Rather a kind of counterstroke took place now. If one had looked before one-sidedly from the European or North American churches as mission subjects at the countries of the Southern Hemisphere as objects of mission, then now thinking and arguing were initiated by the earlier objects. The realization of a comprehensive understanding of mission, that must not ignore the actual situation and the hopeless plight of human beings as well as the question about the credibility of the message, shifted the view to the social and political emergency, yes, led partly even to an identification of development assistance or struggle for freedom with the spreading the Good News. Political liberation and kingdom of God would become almost identical. The thirty second General Congregation of the Society of Jesus in 1974/75 took up the completion and extension of the understanding of mission by the formula: "Our mission Today: The Service of Faith and the Promotion of Justice." There too the balance was - both in the interpretation and in the actual realization - not always kept. The engagement for justice could be regarded as the actual spreading of faith. One wanted to spread the faith particularly by the engagement for development and more justice. Thereby the preaching of faith happened only indirectly yet.

The accent on social engagement was strengthened by the conviction that not only those can be saved who believe and receive baptism, but that God gives each man and woman the possibility of salvation, even if she/he does not belong to the church, yes, even if she/he rejects it (without guilt), see LG 16; GS 22,5; AG 7. Without intending it, Karl Rahner's theory of the "anonymous Christian" was effective in the same direction. {12}

Not only had the 'history of guilt' restrained the motivation for the missionary work. It was added that in the countries of the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the social changes and the Enlightenment the position of Christianity had changed. Faith was increasingly seen as private matter, and its function was particularly limited to the care for one's neighbour and to moral. By all that was also substantially shaken the past conception of Christians of themselves, and their motivation for missionary work. Faith was felt by them rather as burden and problem, and not first as gift and present that are gladly passed on. At the same time the in former times Christian countries became mission countries themselves, and the young churches of the Southern Hemisphere became independent and developed their own successful mission strategies. Hence mission is now the great challenge for the churches in the earlier Christian countries.

Within the Protestant Church and view of mission something similar happened. Thereby the tensions and contrasts within the Protestant Church are, as so often, more clearly visible than within the Catholic Church. They became obvious by the opposite positions in questions of missionary work, which were held by the Ecumenical Council of the churches and by those movements that can rather be called evangelical. A quotation example from the (evangelical) "Frankfurt Declaration" 1970 may illustrate the difference: "'In nobody else is salvation, there is also given no other name beneath heaven to mankind, in which it may find salvation.' (Acts of the Apostles 4:12)

We recognize and testify:
Jesus Christ our saviour, true God and true man, as He is shown to us in the Holy Scriptures in the mystery of His person and in the work of His salvation, is reason, content and authority of our mission. It is the aim of that mission to make known to all people in all areas of life the gift of His salvation. Thus we call on all Non-Christians, who - due to the Creation - belong to God, to believe in Him and to receive the baptism upon His name; because eternal salvation is promised to them only in Him.

Thus we set our face against the false teachings that gained ground since the Third World Church Conference in New Delhi [1961] in ecumenism, that Christ does reveal himself anonymously also in foreign religions, in historical changes and revolutions in such a way that people would meet him there - also without any actual knowledge of the gospel - and find their salvation in him. At the same time we reject the non-biblical restriction of Jesus' person and work to his humanity and moral example. By that Christ's and the gospel's uniqueness are abandoned in favour of a principle of humanity that other people can find also in other religions and world views." {13}

The evangelical side underlined above all the authority of the Holy Scriptures as word of God, that is questioned by such a "kairological" (from Greek: kairos - decisive moment) and contextual theology as criticized in the quoted section. {14} The reproach of the Geneva mission theology on the other hand was that the social side of the gospel is noticed too little, and is shortened in this respect. Today both sides come together again by a rather comprehensive understanding of mission. The view changes again and widens. That applies also to the Catholic Church. There the theological deficit was rather not in the teachings, but in the practical behaviour and in the atmospheric situation Catholics and Protestants were quite close to each other.

A clear indication of that change on the side of the Catholic Church is now the strong taking up of the mission topic in Europe, both by the church leaders and by the theologians. In the Societas of Jesus the formula 'Faith and Justice' has got an addition by the terms inculturation and dialogue. {15} And it is quite clear that the spreading of the gospel stands in the first place and moulds everything else. In the triad: message of God, messenger and receiver there must neither only be thought and looked from the messenger nor from the needs of the receiver, but the starting point of the motion has to be taken in view, i.e. God's initiative. Thus all sides became more deeply aware again that mission is not first an undertaking of the church but of God. As good as all mission theologies are based today on the Missio Dei, and no longer on the church as mission subject; they proceed no longer from the needs of the receivers only.


5. The Missio Dei

This term was coined first by Karl Hartenstein at the mission conference in Willingen (1952) and spread by George Vicedom. {16} There 'mission' is embodied in the Trinity. The Father sends the Son. Father and Son send the Holy Spirit. The Risen Lord passes on the mission of the Father by the gift of the Holy Spirit. "As the father has sent me, so I send you" (John 20:21). If mission is embodied in this mission of the Trinity, then narrowness and one-sidedness are overcome. Mission is then no longer an undertaking of the church, but the church is the work of the Missio Dei, and the mission of the church is submission to and entrance into God's mission. God is the subject of the mission. And the shape of mission is also the shape of the Son's mission. And now again we could go through the dynamics of the Exercises that have this shape: To spread the love of God, to confront with evil and sin, to call to conversion and faith, to invite to enter into the Son's mission under the shape of the cross, in poverty, obedience and humility, by the commitment to the neighbour, and to experience so the strength of the resurrection, the presence of God, and again the new community of the faithful - hence the Trias of incarnation, cross and resurrection. There are in God's motion toward us human beings actually no passive objects, but like the retreatant in the Spiritual Exercises is always the trainee, i.e. an actively working actor, thus in the missionary activity too the listener to the word is challenged to the highest engagement, yes, God too is always already there where the word is accepted. Thereby the basic condition for the fertility of God's word is that it is free to work. That does not only mean freedom of religion (and therewith also civil freedom) as political demand. That means the respect of the missionary preacher for the freedom and dignity of the listener. In the past these two (freedom and dignity) have been seen too little. It means also that God's word calls on the preacher to resign to it to let it work freely - hence the constant conversion and penitence of the church, the readiness to enter really into the Son's mission by sacrificing oneself and living for others. Thus the circle closes. It began with the meditation on Christ's call and on the mission of God. "... how the three divine persons looked at the entire surface or roundness of the whole world filled with human beings, and how they, as they saw then that all of them descended to hell, decided in their eternity that the Second Person became man, in order to save humankind"(EB 102). Thus the original triad between message, messenger and listener was accomplished again, in which God's melody resounds purely and freely. It is encouraging how in the last years the forms of Spiritual Exercises multiplied and liquefied, and how so Exercises and preaching of the gospel actually draw near to each other. Think only of the extremely successful form of Exercises in everyday life, which help that faith and everyday life find together again. Think of the new forms of Retreats on the Streets, which take notice of misery and emergency in the middle of us. Think of Exercises on the web or recently with films. Within the Protestant Church too is an increasing interest in St Ignatius' Spiritual Exercises, and already well established ways to make them. New ways of inculturation and dialogue make an appearance contributing to the renewal and the vividness of faith in our world and taking along people into God's mission.


LITERATUR see German Version



{1} Normally Exercises and mission are not brought in relation to each other, because Exercises are for Christians who are engaged already, while mission addresses heathens or people of other religions. But it should set us thinking that Peter Faber - about whom Ignatius said that he had excellently understood the Exercises - used the Exercises for the religious renewal of a whole Italian region around Parma. Ignatius himself acknowledges that at least the first week can be given also to beginners in faith (EB 18), cf. A. FALKNER, Die "Leichten Exercises".

{2} Vgl. M. SIEVERNICH, Die Mission.

{3} M. SIEVERNICH, Die Mission 11.

{4} FRANCISCUS XAVERIUS, Epistolae aliaque eius scriptae, 2 volumes (MHSJ 67, 68), ed. G. SCHURHAMMER et I. WICKI, Rom 1944-45, Dokument 20,8, Translation by M. SIEVERNICH, Die Mission 19.

{5} J. LOOSEN, Franz Xaver, der Heilige der Hoffnung, in: GuL 26 (1953) 90 - 101.

{6} Vgl. TH. PRÖPPER, Erlösungsglaube und Freiheitsgeschichte, unter Rückgriff auf die Freiheitsphilosophie von Hermann Krings.

{7} One calls this chronologically first week rather as zero week, to be able to maintain the counting of Ignatius: 0. Week: Principle and Foundation; 1. Week: meditations on sin, 2. Week: Call to discipleship and meditations on Jesus' life, 3. Week: meditations on Jesus' suffering and death, 4. Week: meditations on Jesus' resurrection.

{8} G. COLLET, Katholische Missionswissenschaft.

{9} Cf. F. LUDWIG, Mission und Kolonialismus.

{10} Cf. just the influential book of FRANTZ FANON, Die Verdammten dieser Erde (1961).

{11} J. B. METZ, Zur Theologie der Welt; L. RÜTTI, Zur Theologie der Mission, der Metz und Moltmann aufnahm.

{12} Die anonymen Christen, in: Schriften zur Theologie; vgl. N. SCHWERDTFEGER, Der 'anonyme Christ'.

{13} H. STEUBING (Edit.), Bekenntnisse der Kirche. Bekenntnistexte aus zwanzig Jahrhunderten, Wuppertal ²1977, 314-320

{14} Vgl. P. BAYERHAUS, Er sandte sein Wort. Theologie der christlichen Mission, Volume I: Ddie Bibel in der Mission, Wuppertal, Bad Liebenzell 1996. Bayerhaus ist der Verfasser der Frankfurter Erklärung.

{15} "No service to faith without
promotion of justice,
entering into cultures,
openness for other religious experiences.

No promotion of justice without
communicating faith,
changing cultures,
cooperating with other traditions.

No inculturation without
talking about one's faith,
beginning a dialogue with other traditions,
engaging for justice.

No dialogue without
sharing one's faith with others,
studying cultures,
caring for justice."
(34. Generalkongregation 1995)

{16} Missio Dei. Einführung in eine Theologie der Mission (1st edtion 1958); Cf. A. FELDTKELLER, Pluralismus - was nun?


Link to 'Public Con-Spiration for-with-of the Poor'