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Anton Rauscher

John Paul II
and the World-wide Social Question

 

From: Kirche in der Welt, volume 4, P. 11-25, Würzburg 2006 Echter-Verlag
webmaster's own, not authorized translation

    Published in: Johannes Paul II. - Zeuge des Evangeliums. Perspektiven des Papstes an der Schwelle des dritten Jahrtausends, Würzburg 1999, p. 94-101.

 

In the twenty years from 1978 to 1998 when John Paul II was Pope the political, social, economic and cultural conditions and structures in Europe and in the world changed profoundly. That period brought the fall of the communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe. The election of the Krakow archbishop to the head of the Catholic Church strengthened not only the forces of resistance within the Polish people against the totalitarian system but awoke also hopes in other states of the Eastern Bloc controlled by the Soviet Union. Something happened that nobody had expected for the outgoing twentieth century: The Iron Curtain in the middle of Germany and Europe broke down. Human beings and peoples breathed freely again and got back the freedom that had been withheld from them for such a long time. The historical turn led to the ruin of the Soviet Union, and to the dissolution of the power blocs in East and West.

The change of the socio-cultural and political structures always affects also the church and its presence in society. The church lives in the midst of society; and will - whether it wants it or not - be affected by the developments and shifts of the social conditions, as it in its turn reacts upon them and sets free religious-moral orientations and impulses.

It was the avowed aim of the communist rulers to exterminate Christianity in the Soviet Union. The Orthodox Church was persecuted with all means. Only when Stalin sought to win the people for the "Patriotic War" he was ready for small concessions.

 


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After the victory over Hitler Germany communism could expand its domination over the Eastern European states up to Central Europe. It came to the confrontation with the Catholic Church, which was - particularly in Poland, Slovakia and also in Hungary - strongly rooted in the people. In contrast to the Orthodox Church that had not developed social teachings, the Catholic Church was aware of its twofold mission: it has not only to lead people to the eternal salvation, but has also a responsibility for the organization and the order of society in the sense of God's order of Creation.

In the modern age the Catholic Church developed its social teachings in the argument with the "social question" and inspired a Christian social movement. The questions about human working conditions, just wages, and the just distribution of fortune and property, about the relations between the social partners and the relation between economy and state, about a social policy in favour of the workers and their integration into the industrial society - with rights and obligations in economic and social life, these questions were in the centre of the efforts to solve the social question on the part of the church and the Catholics.

The church's social teaching had also to state its opinion on the great social ideologies of individualistic liberalism and collective communism, and to demonstrate argumentatively that the solutions of the social question represented by them were neither in accordance with the dignity and freedom of the working man nor with social justice. The Catholic Church particularly turned against economic liberalism, which did not recognize the human-social side of economy but regarded it only as a process of goods, and only insisted on competition and on the market laws of supply and demand. Likewise the church rejected the revolutionary socialism, its hostility against property and its class warfare. No wonder that the communists saw in the Krakow archbishop's election as pope in 1978 an unheard-of challenge of their system and of their claim to power.

 


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I. Church Anthropology as Foundation of the Church's Social Teaching

Karol Wojtyla was well prepared for the service to the social teaching of the church. He had always been devoted to the questions of anthropology {1}. The argument with the philosophical and sociological drafts of the modern times strengthened the search for sound Christian approaches. But the question, 'What is man?' was above all shifted into the centre by the experiences with the Marxist ideology and the totalitarian systems based on it. At an early stage the theologian, priest and appointed Bishop Wojtyla developed a sensory for the importance of the social, economic, cultural and political conditions and structures for people's life, also for their faith and for the working of the church. In the Catholic social teachings Wojtyla found a reliable orientation. Poland was the only country in the Eastern Bloc where since the thirties the Catholic social doctrine had been developed at the Catholic University Lublin and other universities in teaching and research. It had outlived the bad years of the German occupation and remained alive in the theological formation as well as in intellectual groups also during the decades of communist dictatorship {2}. The matter in which Wojtyla was especially interested was the clarification of the relationship of man and society, as it had been worked out more and more convincingly in the social teaching from Leo XIII over Pius XI and Pius XII up to John XXIII and Paul VI. To define the human being as "individual" is just as insufficient as to define society as a 'sum of individuals'. Decisive for the Christian social thought is the insight that the human person is origin, subject and aim of all social life {3}. This basic orientation makes it easier to distinguish the spirits,

 


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and to clarify the often overlapping and also opposite views on man and society. During the Second Vatican Council the Archbishop of Krakow could contribute his insights and experiences. In the course of the consultations about the Pastoral Constitution on the Church 'Gaudium et Spes' there were weighty voices which admittedly did not question the modern social teaching of the church but wanted to assign a lower rank to it - in relation to the "actual" task of the church, i.e. the proclamation of faith. That triggered a substantial discussion among the Council Fathers, with the result that the social teachings beside and together with the proclamation of faith belongs to the fundamental mission of the church. The church would not set its hope on privileges and could even do without exercising its legitimately acquired rights. "But always and everywhere it lays claim to the right to proclaim faith in true freedom, to make known its social teachings, to fulfil its mission among people without being impeded, and to subject also political affairs to a moral evaluation when this is required by the fundamental rights of man or by the salvation of the souls" {4}. The church's social teachings, which has its reference basis in the encyclical letters and addresses of the Popes, is now also founded on counciliar resolutions.

Just at the beginning of his pontificate John Paul II was confronted with a question of life and death for the church. The Council and a little later (1967) the social encyclical letter Populorum Progressio had contributed to the fact that the commitment for social justice and the fight against poverty and misery, against oppression and exploitation of people throughout the world were seen, as it were, with new eyes. But at the same time, first in Germany and Europe, then in the Latin American countries a development began that led in a completely different direction. It came to a massive re-ideologization toward left, by which also theologians were seized {5}.

 


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Only the reality of the communist totalitarianism prevented a further spreading of neo-Marxism in Europe. That was different in Latin America. There the "Theology of Liberation" was usurped by radical movements that wanted to make the church a vehicle of "progress" on the way to a socialist society {6}. For these groupings the gospel was at best an impulse to critical-revolutionary practice of Christians and of the church, but its contents and direction were determined by the so-called Marxist analysis of economics and society. Seen from Latin America the actual communism was far away. The situation in the church became more and more critical. Today one can hardly imagine yet with which revolutionary impetus those advocates of radical directions proceeded at that time. Also numerous bishops sympathized with the conceptions of the 'Theology of Liberation', for they wanted to practise social justice for the oppressed and poor. Others, whose thought took its starting-point from the church's social teaching, were not less anxious about the question how the common poverty and the misery of large parts of the population could be overcome. They saw however in the socialist efforts not only a challenge for economics and society, but at the same time an endangerment for Christianity, and for the orientation towards basic values as it had been elaborated and substantiated by the Catholic social doctrine.

 


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1. Setting the Course

The third general assembly of the Latin American Bishops' Conference in January 1979 in Puebla/Mexico became the caesura. The Pope felt the responsibility weighing on him in this hour. Would he succeed in avoiding a break, and in winning the bishops for the way of the church's social teaching and its capacity to solve the problems of Latin America's enormous social questions?

In a memorable address to the Third General Assembly of the Latin American Bishops John Paul II dealt first with the foundations of the relation between faith and world, church and society {7}. Foundation-stone is the truth that comes from God and is present in Jesus Christ and his Gospel. The Pope deplored that at many places today "new interpretations" of the Gospel caused confusion and ignored central criteria for the faith of the church. This is above all the case when one conceals Christ's divinity, and wants to interpret him as politician and revolutionary of Nazareth. In the same way the Pope turned against an alternative thinking: here the "institutional" official church causing alienation, there the people church present in the poor. Finally he spoke of "the truth about man". He referred several times to the Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes: "The mystery of the human being is clarified only in the mystery of God's incarnated Word (G.S. 22)". "Thanks to the Gospel the church has the truth about man. It is found in its anthropology that the church will unremittingly deepen and proclaim. The basic teaching of that anthropology is the doctrine about man as image of God. Man can therefore not be reduced to a part of nature or to an anonymous number of human society (see G.S. 12:3 and 14:2)".

In the third part of his speech the Pope emphasized that the promotion and defence of man's dignity and rights, which are the centre of the Christian anthropology, belong to the mission of the church. "The church has therefore no need to resort to systems and ideologies,

 


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in order to love and defend the liberation of man and to cooperate in its realization: In the centre of the message of which the church is the guardian and public herald, it finds the motivation to stand up for fraternity, justice and peace and against all control systems, enslavements, discriminations, acts of violence, plots on freedom of religion, and attacks against man and against life (G.S. 26, 27, 29)".

That speech of John Paul II caused a world-wide sensation. Theologians orientated towards Marxism and left groupings in the church saw themselves forced on the defensive. But above all the Pope had succeeded in mobilizing the large majority of the bishops of the subcontinent for the social teaching of the church and for the Christian understanding of man and society, so that the solution of the social challenges, in particular the fight against poverty and oppression, was no longer sought via Marxist analysis of economics and society. In the future the radical liberation theologians lost more and more in influence.

 

2. Engagement for the Social Teachings of the Church

It was even more important that Johan Paul II got not tired to emphasize the truths and value orientations of the Catholic social teachings for the organization and order of the economical and social, the cultural and political conditions. On his many journeys to the peoples on all continents he was eager to brand the violations of man's sacrosanct dignity and his/her fundamental rights, and acknowledge the social questions and tasks as such.

Just in a time when the awareness for man's right to life in all his/her phases of life becomes weaker and weaker and the abortion of unborn children is practised in many countries, the Pope scourged this inhumanity as emanation of a "Culture of Death", and stood up for life {8}. He also constantly reminded the Europeans of the Christian roots of their culture, which has its foundation in the persuasion that man is "God's image" {9}.

 


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In countries with a Christian tradition the Pope strives to renew and to strengthen the Christian social responsibility. In countries where Christians are a minority he is the messenger of the basic values of freedom, justice, solidarity, subsidiarity and common weal, and awakes the social conscience of people as well as of the authorities. It is the Pope's merit that the popes' social teachings worked gradually like a leaven. More and more bishops and bishops' conferences are concerned with the social problems. They strive for the Christian conception of man and society, criticize unjust conditions and behaviours; call for initiatives for the protection of human rights and for the effective fight against poverty and misery. It is also to be attributed to the Pope's working that the Catholic social teachings are more and more integrated into the theology at the universities, colleges and diocesan seminaries {10}. Wrong conceptions, as if the Catholic social teaching was a blend of sociology, economics and political science with a pinch of ethics diminished everywhere in the world; one discovered anew the Christian anthropology and the social principles rooted in it. The former demarcations from individualistic and collective systems and approaches are considered again. But in many European countries where the church's social teachings became effective first, the opposition is still substantial, as also the following generation's embodiment in an orientation towards the basic values, which after World War II inspired not only the economical but also the social and cultural rebuilding, grew weaker. The strongest upswing the Christian social thinking and acting experienced in numerous countries of Eastern Europe, Latin America, Asia and Africa.

 

II. New Focuses of Social Responsibility

The church can give its specific contribution to the analysis of the social conditions and developments, to the various problems and challenges, to the constructive exchange of ideas, and to the cooperation in the world of today by building on the safe foundations which make possible the Christian anthropology with its social basic values of freedom and justice, solidarity and subsidiarity and public weal and of the serving character of all social life as well as of the public authorities for the protection of the human person and its universal development.

 


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John Paul II published - as none of his predecessor did - three large social encyclical letters in which he turns to the new focuses of social responsibility {11}. That shows how much this Pope is aware of the importance of the relation between church and society, and of the church's mission to bring in, together with all people of good will, the capacity of the Christian view of man and society for solving the problems.

 

1. Laborem Exercens

On occasion of the ninetieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum, one and a half years after he had ascended the Holy See, John Paul II in 1981 wrote the social encyclical letter Laborem Exercens. He wanted to publish it on 15 May on St Peter's Place, when the assassination attempt shot him down. Only four months later, when he had recovered with God's assistance, this could take place on 14 September. Whereas the preceding social encyclical letters were prepared by working groups, this circular letter shows the Pope's unmistakable handwriting in a very striking way. That becomes clear not only by the highly individual construction and the linguistic style, but also by the circumstance that the encyclical does not follow the structure developed in the up to now published circulars. It does not give so much attention to the economic and social structures but is thematically concerned with labour or, to put it bluntly, with the working human being.

The text of the encyclical letter was sketched at a time when in the communist world the workers' faith in a life in prosperity and justice - resp. the empty promises which were made to them -, became more and more fragile, whereas in the liberal societies the prosperity and the reached

 


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social security led to new blunders. Unaffected by the wrongly asked question whether there is no longer enough work in the modern society, John Paul II reminds of the fact that it is work that determines people's daily life, and that it is labour through which they get their peculiar dignity. The statement that labour proves to be the crucial pivot of the entire social question widens the view to the world-wide dimension of the social question, which so far had too much concentrated on the worker question of the nineteenth century. Wherever a society gets into disorder and falls to injustice, it is the structure of labour that needs to be reformed. As far as the "social question" is concerned in the industrial age, the Pope turns against the "mistake of a primitive capitalism" that, as a result of the "materialistic and economist currents" in the nineteenth century, evaluated labour only according to the goods produced by it, but had not any notion of the "dignity and value of work" in its "subjective dimension". It is always man alone who works as person and has therefore the right to human conditions in the production process, and to just wages. From that approach the encyclical letter states again the priority of labour in relation to capital, the "primacy of man in relation to objects", worked out by the Catholic social teachings. At the same time, however, the Pope urges that there was no "structural contrast between work and capital", between those who bring in their work and those who are owners of the means of production. That was important at a time when in the communist controlled states Karl Marx' ideology was still the foundation, and when in the liberal West many elements of the Marxist analysis of economics and society were "received" by different groupings. In contrast to that John Paul II affirmed the principles of the Catholic social teachings regarding the private property, and demanded again - completely on the line taken already by Leo XIII with Rerum Novarum - the employees' sharing in the property of the means of production. Not the socialization of private property but its broad spread is one of the central tasks of the industrial society based on the division of labour.

 


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2. Sollicitudo Rei Socialis

The comprehensive development of man and the building of just societies are further main foci in John Paul II's thought and teaching. On his pastoral journeys leading him into the whole world he was always confronted anew with economical, social, cultural and political conditions under which people and peoples live. He had a view for the many poor and distressed in the developing countries, also for all those whose rights were withhold from them and who had often to live and labour under degrading conditions, above all also for the precarious situation of families in which mothers who were often enough thrown back on their own resources had to provide for their children. The Pope reminded the rich peoples of their responsibility for effective assistance. At the same time he stood up for profound reforms of the social structures in the developing countries.

On occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the encyclical letter Populorum Progressio, published by Paul VI on 26 March 1967 under the motto "World-wide Dimensions of the Social Question", the topic of a solidary development of people and peoples should be brought anew to the notice of the general public. The encyclical letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, which is dated 30 December 1987 {12}, resumes the lines already drawn and considers the changes that took place during the two decades since the publication of Populorum Progressio. The Pope particularly wanted to oppose the narrow understanding of the term 'development', as if it essentially was only about economic, social and political development. With regard to some one-sided positions is said: "The economic development is not in the position to liberate human beings; on the contrary, in the end it will only more enslave them. A development that does not cover the cultural, transcendental and religious dimension of man and society contributes even less to a genuine liberation - in the measure as it does not acknowledge the existence of such dimensions and does not adjust the own aims and priorities to them" {13}.

 


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As far as the "present stage of development" in the world is concerned, the Pope deplores the "ditch between wealth and poverty between the countries of the north and the south as well as within many developing countries and industrial countries" {14}. The political contrast of the "blocks" is regarded as main obstacle; i.e. their ideological roots founded on the principles of "liberalistic capitalism" respectively "Marxist collectivism" {15}. With those statements the Pope remains in the context of the traditional definitions, as they were drawn by the church's social teaching from Rerum Novarum up to Quadragesimo Anno. It is true though that he set new accents when he demanded that the "right to economic initiative" must not be suppressed {16}. Experience taught that the denial of such a right or its restriction in the name of an alleged "equality" of all actually paralyses or even destroys the spirit of enterprise, i.e. the creativity of the citizen as active subjects within society. The consequence is not so much a genuine equality as rather a "levelling down". The Pope finally sketched the example of a "society founded on solidarity" {17}.

 

3. Centesimus Annus

The third social encyclical letter, published by John Paul II on occasion of the hundredth anniversary of Rerum Novarum 1991, is of special standing. That anniversary is marked by the "events" of the year 1989. The Pope saw the crucial cause for the collapse of Marxism, which had been able to achieve supremacy owing to the "economist and materialistic theories of the developing capitalism, in the violation of the rights of the workers" {18}.

The historical experience of the socialist countries had shown in a deplorable way that collectivism does not eliminate alienation but even increase, because the lack of the most necessary things and economic failure are added {19} In that situation the workers - here the Pope refers to his homeland Poland - came across the statements and principles of the church's social teachings that meant a novelty for them {20}. The analysis in Rerum Novarum did not take its starting point from labour as commodity but from the labourer's dignity and from the rights and obligations given by it {21}.

 


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The "second cause of the crisis" leading to the collapse of the socialist systems is "certainly the unfitness of the economic system. Here it is not only about a technical problem, but rather about the consequences of the violation of the human rights to economic initiatives, to property and to freedom in the field of economy" {22}. For the first time proper attention is given to the "competitive profit system" because of its efforts to set up in some countries after the Second World War a democratic society let itself be guided by social justice and takes so the revolutionary potential of communism away {23}.

But what about the question whether after the failure of communism capitalism is the victorious social order, and whether it is to be the aim of the efforts of those countries that try to develop their economy and their society anew? Is it the model to be suggested to the Third World countries looking for the way of a true economic and social progress? {24} The answer turns out to be differentiated: "When "capitalism" means an economic system that acknowledges the fundamental and positive role of enterprise, market, private property and the from there following responsibility for the means of production and the free creativity of man within the range of economy, the answer is certainly in the positive. ... But when "capitalism" is understood as a system in which economic liberty is n o t subjected to a firm legal order serving the full human freedom and regarding it as a special dimension of this freedom with its ethical and religious centre, the answer is just as decidedly in the negative" {25}. With this clarification the encyclical letter brought the lengthy internal-church arguments on "capitalism" to an end, and presented the anthropological and social foundations of a human and just economic system.

 


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But John Paul II does not cherish any deceptive hopes, as if with the fall of communism the way would everywhere be free for building efficient market economies and just social orders. He points to the mental emptiness which the atheist Marxism left. There are needed utmost efforts to open for people an approach to the understanding of the basic values. Reversely the Pope sees in the Western societies the "alienation of consumerism" causing the loss of the true sense of life {26}. The illusion of a value-free society which could once again lead to totalitarianism cannot be denied {27}. Here are the dangers for the constitutional state and for democracy which must energetically be confronted by the social teachings of the church.

 

4. In the Service of World Peace

To the crucial points of the church's social teaching belongs the service to world peace. Here John Paul II is wholly in line with Benedict XV, Pius XII, John XXIII (who left the encyclical letter Pacem in Terris as his legacy) and Paul VI {28}. Peace is a basic value without which there is no development of man and peoples. It is desired by human beings, but is nevertheless constantly endangered. Even if after 1989 the "Cold War" between East and West disappeared and with it also the weapon exports decreased, there were nevertheless new centres of crises, conflicts, disputes and also in the last two decades always small and larger wars. The peace movement in Europe and North America was for a long time convinced that peace could, as it were, be produced. One had only to change and favourably to arrange the conditions within the economic, social, religious-cultural, political and international area. In contrast to this John Paul II took the view that peace was not somehow or other "feasible". He was deeply convinced that peace could only be recovered, maintained and secured when people avoid any kind of discrimination and hate and are ready to respect and promote the dignity of every human being as well as his/her fundamental rights; a n d when the persons responsible do not only limit the production of weapons,

 


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but practise and further co-operation on the basis of justice, and when the peoples and those who are in authority are ready for reconciliation and for breaking the vicious circle of retaliation. In the end peace on earth depends on whether the peace of God is present in people's hearts and also in the hearts of those who are responsible for the social conditions and structures.

The Pope took always pains to remind of these mental-moral foundations of peace and of the genuine attitude towards peace and to demand it. At the yearly Peace Day the Pope addressed powerful words and reminders to the persons responsible as well as to the faithful to secure peace. The Pope became particularly committed to peace in his large addresses to the United Nations and to the Council of Europe. There are also to be mentioned the addresses delivered by him when he welcomed heads of states or when he on feast-days devoted his preaching to the maintenance and ensuring of peace. His journeys into the crisis areas Lebanon, Uganda, Sarajevo and his "Peace Pilgrimage" to Argentina are unforgotten. He moved heaven and earth to remove the large and small barriers that are in the way of peace between peoples, minorities, religions and cultures. He was and is the messenger of peace who has moved much. The world owes him deep thanks for his praying and working for peace.

 

Notes

{1} This concern runs like a red thread through the publications of John Paul II, before and after his election as Pope. See for this also the book published by Vittorio Messori: Johannes Paul II. Die Schwelle der Hoffnung überschreiten, Hamburg 1994. These approaches are to be found even stronger in the book of the Pope published last: Wir fürchten die Wahrheit nicht. Der Papst über die Schuld der Kirche und der Menschen, Graz-Wien-Köln 1997.

{2} See to this: Czeslaw Strzeszewski, Entwicklungen der christlichen Soziallehre in Polen, in: Jahrbuch für Christliche Sozialwissenschaften 22 (1981), p. 65-74. - Christliche Soziallehre unter verschiedenen Gesellschaftssystemen, edited by Anton Rauscher (Mönchengladbacher Gespräche 1), Köln 1980. - Jan Siedlarz, Kirche und Staat im kommunistischen Polen 1945-1989, Paderborn-München-Wien-Zürich 1996.

{3} This formulation of the basic relation between individual and society comes from Gustav Gundlach SJ, who demonstrated by it the personal foundation of solidarism. Pius XII took over this insight into his social teaching: radio address from 24.12.1942 (Utz-Groner, Nr. 227), likewise John XXIII: encyclical letter Mater et Magistra, No. 219 f.). It is also the guiding line of the statements of the Pastoral Constitution on the Church 'Gaudium et Spes', No. 12 ff., No. 23 ff., especially 25.

{4} Second Vatican Council, Pastoral Constitution on the Church 'Gaudium et Spes', No. 76.

{5} In the second half of the sixtieth of the last century a re-ideologization toward left happened in several countries of Europa. This can be seen by the rising of Neomarxism at the universities ("Frankfurter Schule"), and by the students' revolutions in 1968. This development became also apparent within the churches. When in 1968 Johann Baptist Metz published his "Political Theology", he referred not to the social teachings of the church, which was unknown to him, but to J. Habermas and the Frankfurter Schule. His concern was the politicization of faith and the church's function to be critical of society. On Protestant side Jürgen Moltmann developed the "Theology of Revolution". In France one spoke of the "relecture marxiste" of the Bible; in Belgium the term "option" was propagated for the movement "Christians for Socialism" by Fr. Houtart: see François Houtart / André Rousseau, Ist die Kirche eine antirevolutionäre Kraft?, München-Mainz 1973, especially 232 ff.

{6} Gustav Gutiérrez, Theologie der Befreiung. Aus dem Spanischen von Horst Goldstein. Mit einem Vorwort von Johann Baptist Metz (Gesellschaft und Theologie / Systematische Beiträge 11), München und Mainz 1973. - Enrique Dussel, Herrschaft und Befreiung. Ansatz, Stationen und Themen einer lateinamerikanischen Theologie der Befreiung. Übersetzung aus dem Spanischen, Freiburg/Schweiz 1985. - About the critical argument: Kirche und Befreiung (Veröffentlichungen des Studienkreises Kirche und Befreiung, edited by Franz Hengsbach und Alfonso López Trujillo), Aschaffenburg 1975; Bonaventura Kloppenburg, Die neue Volkskirche. Aus dem Spanischen von Wilfried Weber, Aschaffenburg 1981.

{7} The address to which the following references point is printed in: Predigten und Ansprachen von Papst Johannes Paul II. bei seiner Reise in die Dominikanische Republik und nach Mexiko vom 26.1. bis 4.2.1979, p. 48-67 (Verlautbarungen des Apostolischen Stuhls 5, edited by the Secretariat of the German Bishops' Conference). The references to Gaudium et Spes added in parentheses are in the original text.

{8} Especially important is the encyclical letter Evangelium Vitae from 25 März 1995 (Verlautbarungen des Apostolischen Stuhls 120, edited by the secretariat of the German Bishops' Conference).

{9} See the compilation of documents: Jürgen Schwarz (editor), Die katholische Kirche und das neue Europa. Dokumente 1980-1995, Teil 1 und 2, Mainz 1996.

{10} Congregation for Catholic Education: Leitlinien für das Studium und den Unterricht der Soziallehre der Kirche in der Priesterausbildung (Verlautbarungen des Apostolischen Stuhls 91, edited by the secretariat of the German Bishops' Conference), 1989.

{11} The encyclical letters are printed in: Texte zur katholischen Soziallehre, edited by the Bundesverband der Katholischen Arbeitnehmer-Bewegung Deutschlands - KAB, 8. expanded edition, Bornheim 1992. - See the respective commentaries of Lothar Roos: Laborem exercens. Sinn und Sozialgestalt der menschlichen Arbeit, in: Kirche und Gesellschaft No. 86, edited by the Katholischen Sozialwissenschaftlichen Zentralstelle Möchengladbach, Köln 1982; Freiheit und Solidarität. Zur 'Ordnungsethik' in Sollicitudo rei socialis, see in the same place No. 149, Köln 1988; Centesimus annus. Botschaft und Echo, in the same place No. 182, Köln 1991.

{12} The encyclical letter could be published only on 20 Februar 1988 and was dated back, to do justice to the subtitle "Twenty years after the encyclical letter Populorum Progressio". The reason for this may have been the difficulties with the harmonizing. Also the text now in hand gives not the impression that is is made of one founding.

{13} Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, No. 46,4.

{14} In the same place, No. 14.

{15} In the same place, No. 20, 3-5.

{16} In the same place, No. 15, 2.

{17} In the same place, No. 39.

{18} Centesimus annus, No. 23 and 26, 2.

{19} In the same place, No. 41, 1.

{20} In the same place, No. 23, 1.

{21} In the same place, No. 4 and 6.

{22} In the same place, No. 24, 1.

{23} In the same place, No. 19, 2.

{24} In the same place, No. 42, 1.

{25} In the same place, No. 42, 2.

{26} In the same place, No. 24 and 41.

{27} In the same place, No. 44, 2.

{28} Dienst am Frieden. Stellungnahme der Päpste, des II. Vatikanischen Konzils und der Bischofssynode von 1963 bis 1982 (Verlautbarungen des Apostolischen Stuhls 23, second actualized edition, edited by the Secretariat of the German Bishops' Conference).

 

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